Prabhupāda: the common understanding how Kṛṣṇa is everything. Kṛṣṇa, sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam.

īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
anādir ādir govindaḥ

[Bs. 5.1]

So now He's explaining Himself, how He is sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam.

bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ
khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca
ahaṅkāra itīyaṁ me
bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā

[Bg. 7.4]

We materialistic persons, materialist scientists, they can study all these material elements, bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ kham... And then, little higher than that, material scientists, there are psychologists or philosophers, they study mano buddhir ahaṅkāra, thinking, feeling, willing—different stages of the mind. But Kṛṣṇa says that itīyaṁ me bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā, "These eight kinds of material elements, they are separated energy from Me."

Separated energy you can understand very easily. Just like I am speaking and it is being recorded in the tape recorder. When the tape recorder is replayed again, you'll find that I am speaking again. But that speaking and my present speaking is different. Therefore that speaking is separated energy. Now I am speaking directly. That is not separated. But when it is transferred to another matter, that is separated energy.

So this material world is separated energy from Kṛṣṇa, but it is energy, His energy—His energy, acting under His direction. But this material energy is not independent. The material scientists, they are thinking that there is no God; matter is working by actions and reactions. But that is not the fact. Matter is dependent on the direction of the Supreme Lord. That will be stated in the Tenth Chapter: mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram [Bg. 9.10]: "This prakṛti, this material energy, is acting under My superintendence."

How material energy can act independently? That is not very good understanding. Suppose this electric fan is running on; but it is not running on independently. There is electric energy, there is powerhouse, there is the superintending engineer in the powerhouse. So at the end there is living force. Matter cannot work independently. We have no such experience. Anything you take, matter, material, it has no power to work independently. Behind that, there is spiritual existence.

Now, Kṛṣṇa says, bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ [Bg. 7.4]. When we cannot accommodate that how from a person all these material manifestation, the gigantic sky, the innumerable planets with different varieties of energies, how it is possible that it is produced from a person... Therefore, those who are in poor fund of knowledge, they think just the opposite way. Because personally, how it is possible? Therefore they think of the Supreme Absolute Truth as imperson. But that is not fact. Person.

We can again study. Just like your body, my body, although it is gigantic... Just like elephant's body... Or there are many other animals. Just in the ocean there are many big fishes. One fish is called timi, the whale fish. It is sometimes as big as one big house. And it is understood from the śāstras that there is another fish, which is called timiṅgala. Timiṅgala means a big fish which can swallow up a whale as big as a house. So there are so many big animals and big living entities all over the universe, but all of them are production of a very little spiritual spark.

My body, your body, let us study what is this body. This body is produced or generated from the small spiritual spark. That is also mentioned in the śāstra, what is the dimension of that small spiritual spark:

śatadhā kalpitasya ca
jīva-bhāgaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ
sa cānantyāya kalpate

[Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 5.9]

Keśāgra-śata-bhāgasya. The upper portion, the tip of the hair, just like a point, you divide into hundred parts and take another one part and divide another hundred parts. That means one ten-thousandth part of the tip of the hair is the dimension of the spirit soul. That spirit soul, on the basis of that spirit soul, this body develops. Any medical scientist knows.

And we know from the Vedic literatures that this small particle, atomic particle of spiritual spark, takes shelter in the semina of the father, and the father injects the semina in the womb of the mother. Then, if the situation is favorable, then it takes a form of body just like a pea in the first night. That pealike body develops. Then different holes are manifested. They are developed into eyes, ears, mouth and so many holes, nine holes in the body.

So anyone can understand that that small particle of atomic portion of a spiritual spark develops this body, big body. Not only human body; all sorts of bodies. Similarly, this whole universe is also a development of the spiritual body of Kṛṣṇa, Paramātmā. So it is not very difficult to understand. The Buddhist theory is that living symptoms are produced by combination of matter.

But from Bhagavad-gītā and other Vedic literature we understand that matter is produced from spirit soul; matter..., not from the matter the living symptoms are produced. According to Lord Buddha's philosophy, that this body is combination of matter. So when we dismantle the matter, nirvāṇa, then there is no more feelings of pains and pleasure. That is called śūnyavādi.

But we are neither śūnyavādī or nirviśeṣa-vādī. We are saviśeṣa-vādīs. Saviśeṣa-vādi means that the spirit soul has got its form, and this body has got form. Just like dress takes its form because the man has got a form. This body is considered as dress. Vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya [Bg. 2.22]. We are changing our dresses as much as we change our old dress to new ones.

Old order changes, yielding place to new. So this body, because we, in our spiritual body we have got form—hands and legs—therefore we develop a material body which has got hands, legs, etc. That we can understand very easily. Just like your coat and shirt cannot have hands and legs without you having your hands and legs, similarly, this material body, which is considered as dress, means it has developed on the personal body of the spiritual form. This is called saviśeṣa-vāda.

So the material existence, external feature of the Lord, is the..., are these eight elements, namely bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca [Bg. 7.4]. They are subtle forms. Ahaṅkāra, egotism, mind and intelligence, they are also material. They are not spiritual. One who thinks that mental speculation is spiritual speculation, that is wrong. Here from Bhagavad-gītā we understand the mind is also subtle form of matter. And actually that is so, because we get another body after death according to the mental situation at the time of death.

The mind, intelligence, the subtle body... Just like at night our subtle body, mind, intelligence works, and we think that we have got a separate body and have gone somewhere else from our house, from our room; we forget this material body. Similarly, after death, my mind and intelligence carry me to another separate body according to my thinking at the time of death. So false ego. This false ego is that "I am something of material product." This is called false ego. Actually, though, ahaṁ brahmāsmi: "I am Brahman."

bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ
khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca
ahaṅkāra itīyaṁ me
bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā

[Bg. 7.4]

So if we think over all these material objects, then actually, at the end we come to the platform of spirit soul. And the spirit soul, being part and parcel of the Supreme Soul, Kṛṣṇa, then ultimately you come to Kṛṣṇa. As such, Kṛṣṇa is the origin of everything—janmādy asya yataḥ [SB 1.1.1]both material and spiritual. There are different kinds of energies of Kṛṣṇa. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate [Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 6.8, Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport]. This material energy is one of them. It is called external energy. Just like my body, your body is external energy, similarly, the whole material manifestation, cosmic manifestation, is manifestation of the external energy of Kṛṣṇa.

Then Kṛṣṇa says,

apareyam itas tv anyāṁ
prakṛtiṁ viddhi me parām
jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho
yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat

[Bg. 7.5]

Now Kṛṣṇa says that "These material energies are inferior," aparā. Just like in everything within our experience, we have got inferior quality and superior quality. Of course, Kṛṣṇa being absolute, everything is spiritual in the higher sense. But when we analyze scrutinizingly, we can understand that "This is this. This is that."

So Kṛṣṇa is analyzing Himself, that "All these material energies, eight kinds of material energies, they are inferior quality. Apareyam itas tu... Apareyam itas tu anyāṁ prakṛtim. There is another prakṛti, another energy. Because parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate, Kṛṣṇa has got multi, various energies. So these eight elements, material elements in manifestation of His inferior energy.

And the superior energy, Kṛṣṇa says, apareyam itas tu anyāṁ prakṛtiṁ viddhi me parām. Parām means superior energy. And that superior energy is jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat [Bg. 7.5]. They are living entities, just like we are living entities.

So we are energies of Kṛṣṇa. The Māyāvāda philosophy claims that we are the same Brahman or Paramātmā. But Bhagavad-gītā says that the living entities, as we are, we are simply energy; Kṛṣṇa is the energetic. So there is difference between the energetic and the energy. Just like fire: fire is the energetic, and light and heat are the energies of fire. So the sun and the sunshine: the sunshine is the energy of sun. If you think because the sunshine has entered in your room, if you think the sun has entered your room, that is wrong.

So energy and energetic, they are simultaneously one and different. That is the philosophy of Lord Caitanya. Acintya-bhedābheda. There are many philosophers, they say that God and the living entity the same; it is covered by māyā. Yes. It is covered by māyā. That is accepted. But God cannot be covered by māyā. That is not possible. The same example: Just like the clouds, cloud covering my eyesight. Not that cloud is covering the sun. That is not possible. Similarly, māyā also, being another energy...

viṣṇu-śaktiḥ parā proktā
kṣetrajñākhyā tathā parā
tṛtīyā śaktir iṣyate

[Cc. Madhya 6.153]

Out of multifarious energies of Kṛṣṇa, all of them are spiritual. Viṣṇu-śaktiḥ parā proktā. If Kṛṣṇa is complete spirit, His energies are also spiritual. Therefore in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa it is said, viṣṇu-śaktiḥ parā proktā. Parā means spiritual, and kṣetrajñākhyā tathā parā. Kṣetrajña. The kṣetrajña and kṣetra will be discussed in the Bhagavad-gītā in the Thirteenth Chapter.

So this kṣetrajña-śakti or the jīva-śakti is also parā-śakti, spiritual. Kṣetrajñākhyā tathā parā. Avidyā-karma-saṁjñānya tṛtīyā śaktir iṣyate. And there is another energy, which is avidyā. How it is avidyā? Just like we are thinking that Brahman is covered by māyā. This is avidyā. How Brahman can be covered by māyā? Then māyā becomes the great, not Brahman. Brahman means the great. Bṛhatva. That is Brahman. So if māyā covers Brahman, then māyā becomes greater than Brahman. And that is not possible.

Māyā is illusion. Just like cloud. Cloud is another production of the sun. By the heat of the sun, the sea water is evaporated and it is transformed into clouds. So cloud is nothing but a transformation of the energy of the sun. Similarly, māyā-śakti is also another energy of Kṛṣṇa. Daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī mama māyā duratyayā [Bg. 7.14]. Mama māyā. Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram [Bg. 9.10].

So māyā is controlled by Kṛṣṇa; Kṛṣṇa is never controlled by māyā. Kṛṣṇa is never controlled by māyā. That is not very good theory. That is due to poor fund of knowledge. Kṛṣṇa cannot be covered. Just like Vyāsadeva, by his bhakti-yoga meditation he saw Kṛṣṇa and māyā. Māyā apāśrayam, just on the background. Background, just like you find the shadow of the man; not in the front. Similarly, māyā cannot cover Kṛṣṇa. That is wrong philosophy. Māyā can cover the individual soul.

Therefore because the individual soul is apt to fall down sometimes under the clutches of māyā, it is called taṭasthā-śakti. Taṭasthā-śakti. Just like in the seaside the shore, the beach, sometimes you see it is covered by water and sometimes it is land; similarly, when we are covered by māyā, that is our jīva-bhūta stage, and when there is no more covering, that is brahma-bhūta stage. When we are Kṛṣṇa conscious, then we are brahma-bhūta [SB 4.30.20], and when we are not Kṛṣṇa conscious, we are materially conscious, that is māyā.

Therefore as soon as we are freed from the clutches of māyā, brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā [Bg. 18.54], we become prasannātmā, very happy, joyful. Just like if a man is freed from the contamination of a certain type of disease, he feels happy: "Now I am feeling all right," similarly, these coverings of māyā of the jīvas, not of the Supreme Lord...

The Supreme Lord cannot be covered by māyā. That is wrong. The jīvas. That is called ya... Apareyam itas tv anyāṁ prakṛtiṁ viddhi me parām, jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho [Bg. 7.5]. Arjuna is addressed as mahā-bāhu, the great fighter. Great fighter can understand. Who is great fighter? Who is acting under Kṛṣṇa, he is great fighter. Just like Arjuna is fighting.

So when you take shelter of Kṛṣṇa and fight with these material opposing elements... These preachers, they are also mahā-bāho. They are fighting with persons who are not Kṛṣṇa conscious. They are pushing on Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement by fighting. But this fighting is in different way.

This was taught by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Kṛṣṇa-varṇaṁ tviṣākṛṣṇaṁ sāṅgopāṅgāstra-pārṣadam [SB 11.5.32]. Sa aṅga upāṅga astra. Astra means weapons. Just like these Pakistanis are fighting with machine gun, Caitanya Mahāprabhu fought with māyā not with machine gun but with His most confidential associates.

śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu nityānanda
śrī-advaita gadādhara śrīvāsādi-gaura-bhakta-vṛnda

His fighting weapons were Śrī Advaita Prabhu, Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, śrīvāsādi-gaura-bhakta-vṛnda, and other many devotees. So Lord Caitanya's movement is also fighting, but it is a fight in a different way.

So the soldiers, Nityānanda Prabhu, soldier, was sent to deliver Jagāi-Mādhāi. This is also fighting. Therefore all the devotees, all the preachers of Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, they are mahā-bāho, strongly armed by the weapons of Kṛṣṇa. They cannot be defeated. They will push on the fight with māyā, this illusion. What is that illusion? The living entity under illusion is thinking that he will be happy by material comforts. That is not possible.

So this movement, Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, is a declaration of war with māyā. Declaration of war, but in a different way—by this chanting process: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare. The transcendental vibration will clarify the whole atmosphere, and as soon as these Kṛṣṇa conscious soldiers comes out victorious, the whole world will be peaceful.

So jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho. The conclusion is that jīva, the living entities, individual living entities, they are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa as energy. As it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā here, apareyam itas tv anyāṁ prakṛti [Bg. 7.5], that jīva-bhūta, the living entities, they are prakṛti, not puruṣa. Puruṣa means enjoyer, and prakṛti means enjoyed. Just like for crude example: man and woman.

Man is supposed to be the enjoyer, and the woman is supposed to be enjoyed. Similarly, prakṛti is not enjoyer; prakṛti is enjoyed. If the prakṛti remains in her own position as being enjoyed, that is her natural position. And if [s]he superficially, artificially tries to be enjoyer, a puruṣa, she never becomes happy.

According to our Manu-saṁhitā it is said that woman has no independence. Na strī svātantryam arhati. According to Manu-saṁhitā, a woman should remain always dependent, and that is her real happiness. Let her remain dependent when young under the protection of the father. Let her remain dependent when she is young under the protection of the husband. And let her remain dependent in old age under the protection of elderly sons. That is the direction by Lord Manu, who has given us law.

Actually, in fact, if woman is dependent under suitable father, husband and son, she is happy. Therefore, according to our Vedic civilization, it is the father's duty when the girl is young to find out a suitable boy who can take charge of her, and the father is relieved that "Now I have given charge of my girl to a suitable boy, and I am happy."

Perhaps you have seen in our last wedding ceremony yesterday, the husband promised that "I take charge of you to make you comfortable throughout your whole life." And the wife promised, "Yes, I accept you as my husband, and I shall devote my life just to make you happy." These are the relationships, prakṛti and puruṣa.

So here Kṛṣṇa says that jīva-bhūta: prakṛti, not puruṣa. That how the prakṛti can be enjoyer of this material world? That is not possible. That is superficial, artificial, [indistinct]. That is not fact. Therefore, our main disease is that we are to be enjoyed by Kṛṣṇa and we are trying to be enjoyer. We are actually to be predominated by Kṛṣṇa, but we are trying to be predominator. That is our fault. Don't try to be predominator. Try to be predominated by Kṛṣṇa, and you will be happy.

Just like the woman. As soon as she is under protection of a big father, a nice husband and nice elderly son, she is happy, very happy. And as soon as she independent... I have seen practically in Europe and America, there are so many women declared independence; they are most unhappy. I have seen it. In old age they are very, very unhappy. Young age also. They do not get a right husband, and they are very unhappy. When one young girl sees that another young girl has husband, she becomes, "Oh, so this woman, this girl, has got a husband." You see? That is the nature.

Prakṛti means to remain dependent on the supreme husband or on the supreme father. You can accept Kṛṣṇa as father. You can love Kṛṣṇa as father, as husband, as master. Dependent. Remain dependent. And Kṛṣṇa has come to teach us that natural position of the living entities. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]. Man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru [Bg. 18.65]. This is our position, not to be puffed up, that "I am God," "I am Kṛṣṇa," "Everyone is Kṛṣṇa."

This is māyā, the last snare of māyā. Māyā dictates that "You become the biggest man of the world. You become the biggest, richest man of the world." And you are struggling. And there is struggle. Just like there is struggle is going on in Pakistan. The Bangladesh is trying that "We shall be leading Pakistan." And the Western Pakistan is trying that "We shall be leading." Nobody is leader. Actually, Kṛṣṇa is leader.

Ceta-cetana..., nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām, eko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān [Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13]. This is the Vedic injunction. Kṛṣṇa also says clearly, bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram [Bg. 5.29]. Bhoktā aham. Kṛṣṇa does not say that "You are also bhoktā, you living entities." He never said Arjuna that "You are bhoktā, I am bhoktā."

So you have to accept that position, prakṛti, all dependent on Kṛṣṇa. Then Kṛṣṇa takes charge. Kṛṣṇa says, ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi [Bg. 18.66]. He will give us protection. Kaunteya pratijānīhi na me bhaktaḥ praṇaśyati [Bg. 9.31]. These are the statement of Bhagavad-gītā.

So as prakṛti, as dependent on Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa the supreme puruṣa, if we accept this philosophy, then our life is successful. Otherwise it is simply struggle for existence. Kṛṣṇa personally... Jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat [Bg. 7.5]. The whole material world is moving due to the jīva-bhūta, the living entity. This Bombay city is so important because there are so many living entities. And if something happens that all the people leave, then the big, big skyscraper will not fetch even two hundred rupees' rent.

It will be all unimportant. Similarly, the whole world, material world, is important because the jīva-bhūta, who has declared himself as bhoktā falsely... Everyone in this material world, beginning from Brahmā down to the insignificant ant, they are struggling hard. That will be explained in the Fifteenth Chapter. Manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni karṣati [Bg. 15.7]: simply struggling to become equal to Kṛṣṇa, to be the bhoktā.

So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement means to bring men in the same condition, that "You are not bhoktā. Bhoktā is Kṛṣṇa, and you become bhogya. You become enjoyed, not the enjoyer. Then you will be happy."

Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. [applause] [end]