Pradyumna: [leads chanting of verse] [devotees repeat]
jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam
idaṁ vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ
yaj jñātvā na iha bhūyaḥ anyat
jñātavyam avaśiṣyate
[Bg. 7.2]
[break] [02:35]
Translation = "I shall now declare unto you in full this knowledge, both phenomenal and noumenal, by knowing which there shall remain nothing further to be known."
Prabhupāda: Hmm.
jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam
idaṁ vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ
yaj jñātvā na iha bhūyaḥ anyat
jñātavyam avaśiṣyate
[Bg. 7.2]
Yesterday I was speaking in that meeting... What is? School?
Devotee: [indistinct]
Prabhupāda: So, I began from the Seventh Chapter of Bhagavad-gītā, how to develop Kṛṣṇa consciousness. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement can be introduced to every living entity. There is a verse in Caitanya-caritāmṛta, it is said there, nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-bhakti. Nitya-siddha. Nitya-siddha means, just like we eat. All living entities, they eat. There is no..., nothing new introduction when we eat or sleep or have sex life, or when there is danger we will defend. These are nitya-siddha, natural. Wherever there is a living entity, these four things are there. It doesn't matter whether he is human being or a small microbe. These things are there. Nitya-siddha. Similarly, kṛṣṇa-bhakti, love of Kṛṣṇa, that is also natural. It is not artificial. Nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-bhakti. But somehow or other, by our association with this material nature, we have forgotten.
We are not material nature. That is the first education of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or spiritual knowledge. We are spiritual, and Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godead, He is also complete spirit. He is not material. Even the impersonalist, Śaṅkarācārya, he has described about Nārāyaṇa in his commentary on Bhagavad-gītā, nārāyaṇaḥ paraḥ avyaktāt. Nārāyaṇa, the Personality of Godhead, is not anything of this material world. Paraḥ avyaktāt, avyaktāt andha sambhavaḥ. But from the avyaktāt, this material world, or the universe, is created. Therefore Nārāyaṇa or Kṛṣṇa... Kṛṣṇa is the original Nārāyaṇa. That is a big definition or understanding from the Vedic knowledge, that Kṛṣṇa, from Kṛṣṇa first expansion is Baladeva; from Baladeva there is Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, Aniruddha. In this way, expansion takes place. And from Saṅkarṣaṇa also Nārāyaṇa, Vaikuṇṭha Nārāyaṇa. And from Nārāyaṇa the puruṣa avatāra, Viṣṇu. In this way there is expansion. Rāmādi-mūrtiṣu kalā-niyamena tiṣṭhan [Bs. 5.39]. So, the Nārāyaṇa or expansion of Nārāyaṇa, Kṛṣṇa or expansion of Kṛṣṇa, they are not of this material world. Nārāyaṇaḥ avyaktāt. Paras tasmat tu bhavah anyah [Bg. 8.20]. There is another, spiritual, world. Vyako 'vyaktāt sanātanaḥ. Avyaktāt is material, and above this avyaktāt, there is a sanātanaḥ, eternal abode.
So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, it is nothing of this material world. This Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, it is also not any vibration of this material world. There is a verse by Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, golokera prema-dhana hari-nāma-saṅkīrtana. This hari-nāma-saṅkīrtana is vibration from the spiritual world. Just like you receive some message, vibration of the material world, from Europe, from America, so that is not Indian vibration but American vibration or European vibration. Similarly, there is vibration in the spiritual world. Simply one has to catch. You must have that machine. So that machine is there within you. The heart is the machine where you can receive the spiritual message, because within the heart there is Nārāyaṇa. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe [Bg. 18.61]. Particularly it is mentioned, hṛd-deśe.
So because Nārāyaṇa, or īśvara, is situated within the heart of everyone, there is no necessity of researching where is Nārāyaṇa. The śāstra says it is within your heart. Therefore the yogīs, they practice yogic process how to see Nārāyaṇa within the heart. Dhyānāvasthita-tad-gatena manasā yaṁ paśyanti yogino [SB 12.13.1]. The yogic process is to see Nārāyaṇa within the heart. Similarly, you can hear also Nārāyaṇa by this transcendental vibration. He can be perceived, because we have got senses, different senses. We can see, and we can hear also. Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is Absolute Truth, by any of your senses, either by seeing or by hearing, it is the same thing. Nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇa caitanya-rasa-vigrahaḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.133]. Rasa-vigrahaḥ. Nāma, this name, holy name of Kṛṣṇa or holy name of Rāma, they are rasa-vigrahaḥ, transcendental, blissful form. That is also... Vigraha means form. That form is understood through the ear, and it goes to the heart. In this way we can perceive Nārāyaṇa by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.
It requires little practice, as they are enunciated in the śāstras and directed by the spiritual master. Then one can understand, or one can see. Just like, premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu viloka... [Bs. 5.38], the same thing hṛdayeṣu. As it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati [Bg. 18.61]. Similarly, the same thing is stated there in the Vedic literature. Bhagavad-gītā is also Vedic literature, Brahma-saṁhitā. Premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti. Same, the same thing, hṛdā.
So anyone can see God within his heart if he adopts the process, bona fide process. Nārāyaṇa is within you. Therefore, great, great saintly persons, they are sitting in a lowly place, alone. But he is not alone. He is with Nārāyaṇa, Kṛṣṇa. He is seeing always there. So he is not alone. We are always accompanied by the Supreme Personality of Godhead as Paramātmā, antaryāmī, within the heart. That is the Vedic statement, that there are two birds sitting on the same tree. One bird is enjoying the fruit of the tree, and the other bird is simply witnessing. So the two birds, jīvātmā and paramātmā, are always associated. He is so kind, He is just looking forward, "When this jīvātmā, who is illusioned, bewildered, captivated by this material world, material enjoyment, when he will come back again to Me?" Just like father and the son, the son who has gone out of home. The father is always looking forward when the son would come back at home and enjoy. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa, the supreme father, He is always looking forward when we shall go back to Him.
Therefore, He comes personally, yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata, tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham [Bg. 4.7]. The general opportunity for human being is to understand God, or Kṛṣṇa, and go back to Him again. We have come from Him, but we are attracted by this material enjoyment, which is not very pleasurable. It is suffering. Just like here, without this fan, it was uncomfortable, excessive heat. So excessive heat, excessive cold, so many things, adhibautika, adhyātmika, adhidaivika, we are actually suffering always. This is the nature of this material world, stringent laws of the material world. And still we are trying to become happy by some adjustment. This is called struggle for existence. In this way we cannot be happy.
Real happiness is there, yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama [Bg. 15.6]. Vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhaḥ man-mayā mad ar..., mām upāśritāḥ, bahavo jñāna-tapasā pūtā mad-bhāvam āgatāḥ [Bg. 4.10]. These are the descriptions in the Bhagavad-gītā. Vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhaḥ. Vīta-rāga. Rāga means attachment. So we are now attached to this material world. So by practice one becomes vīta-rāga, no more attachment for the material world. That is possible. Bhaktiḥ pareśānubhavo viraktir anyatra ca [SB 11.2.42]. If you develop your normal bhakti, or devotional life, that kṛṣṇa-bhakti nitya-siddha sādhya kabhu naya [Cc. Madhya 22.107]. It has to be awakened. Then you will become vīta-rāga. Bhaya-krodha, and this material world is always fearful. Every living entity is fearful what will happen next. There are, just like at the present moment, everywhere, every time, every, always we are fearful. Bhayaṁ dvitīyābhiniveśataḥ syād [SB 11.2.37]. As soon as we forget our constitutional position and Kṛṣṇa, then an artificial way of fearfulness is created.
So vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhaḥ man-mayā mām upāśritāḥ [Bg. 4.10]. But this bhaya can be overcome, and this attachment can be overcome when we become Kṛṣṇa conscious. Man-mayā mām upāśritāḥ, bahavo jñāna-tapasā pūtā mad-bhāvam āgatāḥ. Mad-bhāvam, "My nature." The spiritual nature or the spiritual world, they came. How? This is the process, vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhaḥ man-mayā mām upāśritāḥ. Bahavo. Not only one, two, but bahavo, many. Bahavaḥ jñāna-tapasā pūtā. By..., one has to be purified. That is called pūtāḥ. Without being purified you cannot enter into the spiritual world. Vīta-rāga-bhaya, jñāna-tapasā pūtā, mad-bhāvam āgatāḥ. So these are the statements of the Bhagavad-gītā, and there are many others, statements. So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is meant for taking back all the suffering humanity, all living entities, back to home, back to Godhead. This is the sum and substance of Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement.
So here Kṛṣṇa says that "I am explaining to you how that knowledge of going back to home, back to Godhead, can be attained." Therefore He is saying here, jñānaṁ te ahaṁ sa-vijñānam. Jñānam means theoretical knowledge. That is called jñānam. And sa-vijñānam means practical knowledge. Just like in the scientific department of colleges, there are, for understanding anything scientifically, there are two division = practical and theoretical. So jñānam is theoretical, and vijñānam means practical. Simply to know there is God, this is theoretical knowledge. But when actually you become connected with God, you practice the activ..., godly activities, that is called vijñānam. So Kṛṣṇa will explain in this chapter the knowledge of God, both theoretically and practically. Jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam vakṣyāmi, "I shall speak to you," aśeṣataḥ.
Aśeṣataḥ means vividly. Aśeṣataḥ. "And briefly," samanvitāḥ. And when it is said aśeṣataḥ, that means elaborately. But yaj jñātvā, "if somehow or other you understand this knowledge" yaj jñātvā, na iha, "in this material world," iha, iha means this material world; bhūyaḥ, "again"; anyat, "anything more"; jñātavyam avaśiṣyate, "no more," "you require no more further knowledge to understand." That is the statement in the Vedas, yasmin vijñāte sarvam evaṁ vijñātaṁ bhavati [Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad 1.3]. If you simply understand Kṛṣṇa, because Kṛṣṇa is everything, so if you understand Kṛṣṇa, automatically you understand what is this world, what is this earth, what is this water, what is this fire---this is material things---what is this air, what is this sky, what is this mind, what is this intelligence, where is this ego and where is the soul.
In this way you understand everything, because these material elements---earth, water, fire, air, sky---that will be explained in the next verse, it is the expansion of Kṛṣṇa's energy. As there are energies and the energetic, just like the fire = the fire has got two energies---one energy is the heat, and one energy is light. Just like in the morning, as soon as you see the light from your window, you can understand that there is sunrise. By the energy, light of the sun, you can understand there is now the sun on the sky. Heat also. When you are too much heated, even within the room, even if you do not see the sun, you can understand that this heat is due to the sun. Similarly, we have to understand the presence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by perceiving the different energies. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate. At the present moment we are trying to understand the energy of Kṛṣṇa. We cannot see directly Kṛṣṇa, but as soon as you see the energy or you perceive the energy, you can understand there is Kṛṣṇa, there is God. That is called intelligence. This is called jñānam. And when you are directly in connection with Kṛṣṇa, or directly in His service, that is called vijñānam.
jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam
vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ
yaj jñātvā na iha bhūyaḥ anyat
jñātavyam avaśiṣyate
[Bg. 7.2]
Now, why this jñānam required? Because our mission of life is to... You cannot understand with your foolish brain what is God. That is not possible. They are trying to understand God by the limited senses. How you can understand? We are defective in so many ways. First of all we commit mistake, and we are illusioned, we try to cheat others, and our senses are imperfect. So how you can understand with your limited senses, with so many defects? That is not possible. Therefore you have to understand God from God Himself, or from His representative. Therefore Kṛṣṇa said that mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ [Bg. 7.1]. Mad-āśrayaḥ: "directly under My direction, or under the direction of My representative."
You cannot understand Kṛṣṇa if you remain under your personal intelligence. Everyone says that "I shall understand this by my own dint of knowledge, by speculation." That is not possible. Kṛṣṇa says that you have to understand. Here also it is the same thing said, that jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam vakṣyāmy aham [Bg. 7.2], "I shall speak to you." So this is the secret of success, if you want to understand God, what is God. Everyone..., there are many philosophers, scientists, they are trying to understand God by research, but that research will not help you. You have to understand directly from God, or from God's representative. That is the way.
So in the Vedic literature it is said, athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi jānāti tattvaṁ..., jānāti tattvam, te deva. "My Lord, one who has received..., one who is able to receive a little favor from You, he can understand Your tattva."
athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-
prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi
jānāti tattvaṁ...
na cānya eko 'pi ciraṁ vicinvan
[SB 10.14.29]
"Others, who are simply speculating, they cannot understand You." Therefore, people are bewildered how God is person. But they cannot understand, because they have not taken shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, or His representative. It is impossible for him. Nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yoga-māyā-samā... [Bg. 7.25]. Kṛṣṇa cannot be exposed to the nondevotees. Nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasya. Not anyone, ordinary common man, can understand. Therefore, we have to understand Kṛṣṇa, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, from Kṛṣṇa, not from anyone who is simply speculating or wrongly interpreting Bhagavad-gītā. They cannot understand. That is the way.
jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam
vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ
yaj jñātvā na iha bhūyaḥ anyat
jñātavyam avaśiṣyate
[Bg. 7.2]
Therefore our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is just to try to understand what is Kṛṣṇa. That's all. What is Kṛṣṇa. Because if you perfectly understand Kṛṣṇa, then immediately you become liberated, and you become eligible to be transferred to the spiritual world. That is stated, divyam. Janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ [Bg. 4.9]. If one can understand Kṛṣṇa, why He appears, why He disappears, and... And these are, they are all transcendental; they are not ordinary. Because we understand Kṛṣṇa as a historical person, a person like me, maybe a very great personality with more power than me. Yes, that He is, but you do not know how much powerful He is. Because He is God, He is powerful in full. There is no deficiency in His power. Aiśvaryasya samagrasya vīryasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ [Viṣṇu Purāṇa 6.5.47]. He is powerful in complete, pūrṇam, pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya pūrṇam evāvaśiṣyate [Īśo Invocation]. Even though Kṛṣṇa, from Kṛṣṇa all His power is taken away, still He is pūrṇam, He is still all-powerful.
So, janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ. So we have to understand Kṛṣṇa in truth, not superficially. In scientifically, vijñānam, jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam. Not foolishly, that "I can interpret Kṛṣṇa." Some rascal says that Kṛṣṇa means black. Some rascal says Kṛṣṇa means this, Kṛṣṇa means a debauch, as according to one's character and angle of vision. But real meaning of Kṛṣṇa is paraṁ brahma. Kṛṣi go va... Kṛṣi bhu-vacaka-sabda nasta nirvṛtti-vacaka [indistinct], iti kṛṣṇa paraṁ brahma iti abhidhīyate. Kṛṣṇa means paraṁ brahma. Kṛṣṇa means all-attractive. So we have to take the understanding of great personality. Rāma. Rāma. Rāma means paraṁ brahma.
ramante yogino 'nante
iti rāma-padenāsau
paraṁ brahma iti abhidhīyate
[Cc. Madhya 9.29]
So this Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Rāma means direct connection with the paraṁ brahma.
nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇaś
pūrṇaḥ śuddho nitya-mukto
abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ
[Cc. Madhya 17.133]
These things are to be understood, that nāma-nāminaḥ abhinnatvān, identical. So when we chant "Kṛṣṇa," "Hare," "Rāma," they are directly connection with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Even though we do not know how to chant, there are, according to śāstric, I mean to say, injunctions, there are ten kinds of offenses. When we avoid that offenses, then it is pure chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. So even if we chant with offenses in the beginning---it cannot be free of offenses---still it will act. Just like you come near the fire, you can feel the warmth, and with direct touch it becomes red hot. So we have to be in touch with the fire, then gradually we become warmer, warmer, warmer, warmer and red hot, red hot.
Just like another example = just like you take a lead, iron rod and keep in touch with the fire. It becomes warm, warmer, warmest, then gradually the iron rod becomes red hot. When it is red hot, then it is fire. You touch that iron rod anywhere, it will burn. The quality of fire is already acquired. Similarly, if you keep always in touch with Kṛṣṇa,
smartavyaḥ satataṁ viṣṇur
vismartavyo na jātucit
sarve vidhi-niṣedhāḥ syur
etayor eva kiṅkarāḥ
The..., to become advanced in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, the first principle is smartavyaḥ satataṁ viṣṇu, "Always remember Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa." That is the beginning, to touch. Vismartavyo na jātucit, "never forget." So this Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, if you chant, there is no expenditure, but the profit is very, very great, because you are touched in Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa's name nondifferent, identical. Nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇaś caitanya-rasa-vigrahaḥ, pūrṇaḥ. It is not that partial; pūrṇaḥ, because the name is of the pūrṇaḥ. Pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya pūrṇam evāvaśiṣyate [Īśo Invocation]. This is the Vedic version.
So it is not very difficult. Simply try to be in touch with the vibration. Where is the wrong there? What is the loss there? If you chant, just like these boys, they..., you have seen the picture, they have taken it seriously. They are working in the field = Hare Kṛṣṇa. They are working in the factory, of incense factory = Hare Kṛṣṇa. Where is the wrong there? Why India is not taking this? If you work in your factory, if you chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, then what is the loss there? But you remain always in touch with Kṛṣṇa, smartavyaḥ satataṁ viṣṇur. This formula is [indistinct]. We shall talk so many nonsense things, but you are not, I mean, desiring to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. This is our fault. Otherwise Kṛṣṇa is so kind. Nāma rūpe kṛṣṇa avatāra. Kṛṣṇa is now descended in His vibration form, Hare Kṛṣṇa, this Kali-yuga. Kali-yuga, because we cannot do anything, therefore Kṛṣṇa has become very easily available in the form of His holy name, Hare Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is available. You can see Kṛṣṇa, you can touch Kṛṣṇa, you can talk with Kṛṣṇa. As you may advance in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that is possible. Then, gradually making progress means gradually you will be lover of Kṛṣṇa. That is required. Mayy āsakta, as soon as you become lover, you become attached. That is required.
Now, at the present moment, we are attached to so many things, because we have forgotten Kṛṣṇa. Now gradually, if you increase your attachment for Kṛṣṇa, then you will forget all these material. That is liberation. That is liberation. Bondage means we are becoming more and more attracted with this material world, and on account of this attraction, we have to accept another body, material body. And as soon as you accept a material body, you become under the control of this material nature. Liberation means to be freed from the control of the material nature.
It is a great science. Try to understand. Therefore it is said, jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam. It is not sentiment. It is not religious sentiment. It is a science. Kṛṣṇa consciousness means to understand the science of Kṛṣṇa. We are understanding so many subject matters scientifically, but we are neglecting one thing = how to understand Kṛṣṇa scientifically. That science is described here, jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam. Jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam ahaṁ vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ yaj jñātvā [Bg. 7.2]. If you simply try to understand the science of Kṛṣṇa, then all other sciences will be automatically understood. Just like if you understand what is one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, zero, then you understand the whole mathematical science, because the mathematics means that one, two, three, four, five, six, this way, that way, this way, that way. The only..., the figures are all, the digits are the one, two, three, four. So therefore one has to learn one, two, three, four, up to nine, and zero. Similarly, if you understand Kṛṣṇa, the indirectly and directly, everything is Kṛṣṇa. That is the highest scientific understanding of everything. That is a fact. Kṛṣṇa is earth, Kṛṣṇa is water, Kṛṣṇa is air, Kṛṣṇa is fire, Kṛṣṇa is sky, Kṛṣṇa is mind, Kṛṣṇa is intelligence, Kṛṣṇa is ego and Kṛṣṇa is soul. So this is required, jñānaṁ te 'haṁ sa-vijñānam.
Then next verse Kṛṣṇa says that,
manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu
kaścid yatati siddhaye
yatatām api siddhānāṁ
kaścin māṁ vetti tattvataḥ
[Bg. 7.3]
The same thing, tattvataḥ, we have to understand. In the Fourth Chapter it is said that janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ [Bg. 4.9]. That tattvataḥ, you can understand Kṛṣṇa tattvataḥ. Then another place Kṛṣṇa says, bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ [Bg. 18.55]. So our aim should be to understand Kṛṣṇa tattvataḥ, in truth, not superficially, not by foolish commentary. If we simply try to follow what Kṛṣṇa has said, what is the difficulty? There is no difficulty, but foolishly we interpret in a different way, and māyā takes away our knowledge, māyayāpahṛta-jñānā. He is thinking that he is very learned scholar, but he is fool number..., rascal number one. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says māyayāpahṛta-jñānā. Na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ. Kṛṣṇa is speaking so many ways about Himself. Without understanding Kṛṣṇa in His own way, we are trying to understand Kṛṣṇa in different way. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, māyayāpahṛta-jñānā, āsuri bhāvam.
The atheistic class of men, they interpret in a different way, because their knowledge has been taken by māyā. And why it is so? Because they are sinful, duṣkṛtinaḥ, mūḍhāḥ, narādhamāḥ. These things are there. You will find in Bhagavad-gītā. It is not our manufactured word. Therefore our proposal is, try to understand Kṛṣṇa. Try to understand Bhagavad-gītā as it is. Do not misinterpret, do not be misled by the misinterpreters. Then your life will be successful. You will understand what is Kṛṣṇa, and you will become Kṛṣṇa conscious. Then, tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya.
So the..., in the Western world, they are taking more and more seriously about this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. So our only request is that in India also, at least those who are sympathetic with this movement, kindly try to understand Kṛṣṇa scientifically, and your life will be successful.
Thank you very much. [end]