Prabhupāda: Hare Kṛṣṇa.
Pradyumna: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. [devotees repeat] [leads chanting of verse, etc.]
nijagrāhaujasā vīraḥ
kaliṁ digvijaye kvacit
nṛpa-liṅga-dharaṁ śūdraṁ
ghnantaṁ go-mithunaṁ padā
[SB 1.16.4]
[break] [leads synonyms] [break]
Translation = "Once, when Mahārāja Parīkṣit was on his way to conquer the world, he saw the master of Kali-yuga, who was lower than a śūdra, disguised as a king and hurting a cow and a bull by his leg. The King at once caught hold of him to deal sufficient punishment."
Prabhupāda: So it was the duty of the king to go on tour and see persons who are actually not abiding by the laws of Vedic principles. This is the duty of king. Just like in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said that cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13] = "In the human society I have divided four classes of men." Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭam. Kṛṣṇa says, "I have done it."
So by nature, there are four classes of men. Anywhere you go you'll find four classes of men. First class = intelligent men. In whichever you take, you'll find not all of them of the same category. First class, second class, third class and fourth class. First class means the most intelligent class, scientists, philosophers, like that; mathematicians, great religionists. They're first-class men. The second class, administrator, to see that the government is going nicely, people are not unhappy, people are not suffering from thieves and rogues. That is the first business. Good government means that people will think that they're secure, their property and person is secure. There will be no harm. Not very many years ago, say about hundred years ago, in India the native states, the rule was that if something is lying on the streets, valuable or invaluable, so nobody should touch it.
The person who has lost or who has left that thing there, he would come and pick it up. You cannot touch. That was the law. And if one was caught, a thief, his hands will be cut off. In Kashmir state this was the rule. As soon as a thief is arrested and if he's proved that he has stolen, the only punishment is cut his throat, ah, cut his hands. Bās. Exemplary punishment so that nobody will dare to steal. So this is second class, administrators. And the third class are to produce money---businessmen, mercantile. Money is also required. So without money nothing can be done, so that is not... But that is the business, that is the occupation of..., the third class take. And the fourth class, śūdra. They cannot take any post as intelligent class or administrator class or money-producing class. They are simply servant, help others, śūdra. The śūdra was not meant for taking the political part.
Therefore it is said here, nṛpa-liṅga-dharaṁ śūdram. Nṛpa-liṅga-dharam. Liṅga means..., real meaning is "gender." Just the masculine gender, feminine gender. And the other meaning is "sign." Just like there are signs, certain signs, we can understand here is a male, here is a female, by the signs. So liṅgam means "signs," "symptom." So nṛpa-liṅga-dharam śūdra. Actually he was a śūdra, but he dressed like a king. Just like if a woman dresses like a man, that is artificial. Or a man dresses like woman, that is also artificial. So everyone has his original dress and position. There, because a śūdra took the dress of a king, therefore it is called nṛpa-liṅga-dharam. Artificially he was dressed like a king. That is the position of Kali-yuga. Now the government men, they are elected by votes. People do not consider whether he's a brāhmaṇa or kṣatriya or vaiśya or śūdra. As he likes. People are śūdras. Kalau śūdra-sambhavaḥ [Skanda Purāṇa]. In the Kali-yuga everyone is a śūdra. Therefore naturally he will elect one śūdra. The śūdra is not fit for government management. As such, we find so many difficulties in the government because the head or the head man, they are all śūdras. They have dressed like administrator, but they are śūdras. This is the symptom of Kali-yuga. There is no brāhmaṇa, there is no kṣatriya, there is no vaiśya. Maybe a few vaiśyas, and all śūdras. A brāhmaṇa means the good quality, first-class quality. That is very, very rare to be found.
So it was the business of the king to see that things are going on. First of all, there is classification = intelligent class, or brāhmaṇa; and the administrator class of kṣatriya; and the mercantile class, money-producing class. So everyone is engaged, and he's doing his own business. But this division must be there. Without division the society will be in chaos. The example is given... I have several times mentioned that, that just like in this body, there is division = the head division, the arms division, the belly division and the leg division. They are all required. You cannot say that simply legs will do. What about the head and arms? "I don't require." That is not... That dead body. That is dead body. Any part of the body, you cannot miss. They must be all in order; then your body is fit. Similarly, in the human society, the social body, there must be these classes = the head class, the arm class, the belly class and the leg class. Very scientific. You cannot simply...
If you have got intelligent class of man, but nobody is helping him, then what..., what will be the use of intelligence? The intelligent class must be there, but to help him the less intelligent class men also required. Just like if there are only intelligent class, that will be chaos. Nobody will care for anyone. Sometimes we'll find in our society, all intelligent class, and they fight each other. That's all. Everyone is thinking, "I am intelligent. I am boss. I must order you." And the other is thinking, "Why you shall be boss? I am also boss." So [laughs] fighting will go on. So this is going on. At the present moment there is no intelligent class of men. But kalau śūdra-sambhavaḥ [Skanda Purāṇa]; therefore things are all in chaos. Everywhere you go, any part of the world, nobody is happy, either in family or community and society, nationwide, you take. Everyone is distrust, unhappiness, godlessness. Because the intelligent class of men is finished.
So the king, his duty was that if you are professing yourself as a brāhmaṇa, then it is the king's duty to see that you are acting as a brāhmaṇa. Brāhmaṇa is not by birth but guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13]. Guṇa means quality. And karma, and work also. Simply "I have got now sacred thread, I have become brāhmaṇa, double initiated; now my business is finished. I can work, I can do whatever we like, like less than śūdra, caṇḍāla." No, sir. If you are initiated as a brāhmaṇa, you must act as a brāhmaṇa. Truthfulness, satyaṁ śamo damas titikṣā ārjava jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma [Bg. 18.42]---everything is there. A brāhmaṇa must be truthful. That is the first business of a brāhmaṇa---truthful. He will speak truth even before an enemy. Nobody speaks truth before an enemy, because he wants to hide something. But brāhmaṇa's business is to become truthful even before an enemy. That is stated.
There are many instances. Just like Satyakāma-jābāla. A boy, Satyakāma, he went to Gautama Muni = "Sir, I want to become your disciple." "Oh, very good. Are you brāhmaṇa or brāhmaṇa's son?" Formerly, in Vedic ways, nobody could be accepted as a disciple unless he's born in high-class family---brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya---especially brāhmaṇa. So this question was asked, "Which family you belong to?" So he said, "I do not know what is my classification." "Now, who is your father?" "That I do not know." "Ask your mother." Then he went to his mother, "Who is my father?" "My dear boy, I do not know." So actually his mother was maidservant. So maidservants have so many men, and by whom she was pregnant she cannot remember. She also told the truth. And this Satyakāma, he also came to Gautama Muni, he said, "Sir, my father..., my mother also do not know who is my father." "Oh, that's all right. You are a brāhmaṇa, because you are truthful. You do not hide yourself, that 'I am a prostitute's son.' You say this is the position = 'I am plainly speaking that my mother does not know who is my father. I do not know.' " So because he was truthful... That is the symptom of brāhmaṇa. He accepted, "Yes, I'll accept you as my disciple."
Indian man: Prabhupāda, how did Kārna...?
Prabhupāda: You do... Don't disturb. So this is the process, that the four castes---brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya... They were caste system when they actually things were going on. Just like a carpenter = his son naturally becomes a carpenter by seeing the father's work. So he can be very easily classified as a carpenter. Similarly, formerly, the brāhmaṇa family, kṣatriya family, vaiśya family, they were following the rules and regulations in such a way that naturally a brāhmaṇa's son became a brāhmaṇa. Because he has learned already the brāhmaṇa principle from the parent, so naturally little touch will make him... That is initiation. Even though one is born in a brāhmaṇa family, why does he require initiation and sacred thread ceremony? Because simply by taking birth in a brāhmaṇa family one does not become a brāhmaṇa. He has to be raised to the brāhmaṇa standard. Otherwise, there was no initiation, there was no necessity of initiation or offering the sacred thread. That is called saṁskāra. Otherwise, by birth everyone is śūdra. Janmanā jāyate śūdraḥ saṁskārād bhaved dvijaḥ. So it is very good that one has taken his birth in a brāhmaṇa family, but provided he has learned the brāhmaṇa's activities nicely from the parent, he is brāhmaṇa. Kiṁ punar brāhmaṇaḥ puṇyaḥ [Bg. 9.33].
But if he deviates from the family principle... Just like in the śāstra it is said that in a higher class family, brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, especially brāhmaṇa, if the garbhādhāna-saṁskāra is not accepted, the whole family becomes śūdra. Garbhādhāna-saṁskāra. That means begetting the child, there is a ceremony which is called garbhādhāna-saṁskāra. So in the Kali-yuga practically no saṁskāra is performed. Therefore in the śāstra it is said, kalau śūdra-sambhavaḥ [Skanda Purāṇa]. So Vedic process, Vedic principles of accepting, it is not possible in this Kali-yuga, because the garbhādhāna-saṁskāra is not there. In nobody's family there the garbhādhāna-saṁskāra is taken. Sex life is also regulated by garbhādhāna-saṁskāra. Therefore in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, dharmāviruddhaḥ kāmo 'smi [Bg. 7.11]. Aviruddha, "Sex life which is not against the religious principles, that I am. That sex life I am," Kṛṣṇa says. "I am that sex life." That is godly. But sex life for sense gratification or for prostitution, that is not Kṛṣṇa. That is Kali. So this is the process.
So it was the duty of the king to see that if a man is professing himself as a brāhmaṇa, he must act as a brāhmaṇa. That was the duty. Otherwise, he should be punished. Just like here. This śūdra, he was presenting himself as a kṣatriya, nṛpa-liṅga-dharam. Therefore he was punished. Not that the king is callous = "Let him do whatever he likes." Just like now our, everywhere, the government, it doesn't care whether you are acting as a brāhmaṇa, śūdra, or whatever nonsense you are doing. Doesn't care. "You pay me tax, that's all. Bring your tax, income tax, and everything, then you are free, whatever you are doing." That was not the duty of the king. The king's duty is to see that actually one who is presenting himself as brāhmaṇa, he's acting as a brāhmaṇa, he has acquired the qualities of a brāhmaṇa. Guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13]. He has got the quality and acting. Similarly, a kṣatriya also, he must act as a kṣatriya. Similarly, vaiśya. These are all, statements, are there in the Bhagavad-gītā, you know. Kṛṣi-gorakṣya-vāṇijyaṁ vaiśya-karma svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.44]. Śauryaṁ tejo yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam īśvara-bhāvaś ca kṣātraṁ karma svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.43]. Everything is given. Paricaryātmakaṁ karma śūdrasyāpi svabhāva-jam. Everything is given there. So it is the duty of the government, that this man is professing as a brāhmaṇa, as a kṣatriya or a vaiśya, whether he is acting, or whether he's cheating others. No cheating will be allowed. That is government's duty.
So here, this man was cheating. Because here it is said, nṛpa-liṅga-dharam. He was dressed like a king, just like king is very gorgeously dressed, but his bodily feature, he was a black man. The black man means śūdra. The brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, they were not black. But the śūdras were black. From external point of view, these things are there. Śūdras, another name is kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa means black. So this black man was dressed like a king, and what was he..., was he going to do? Ghnantaṁ go-mithunaṁ padā. He was trying to kill a pair of cow and bull. So naturally he could understand. Parīkṣit Mahārāja was going on tour, and on his way he saw that this rascal is dressed like a king and he's trying to kill cows and bulls. Oh, he immediately chastised him. Nṛpa---he has dressed like a king, but his business is like śūdra or less than śūdra. Butchers, butchers cannot be intelligent class of men, brāhmaṇa. A brāhmaṇa is not butcher. Neither a kṣatriya. Kṣatriya fights, kills, but in regular religious fight. Not that by whimsically he'll fight and kill men. No. So here it is said, nijagrāhaujasā vīraḥ. A kṣatriya must be vīra, hero. Whenever there is injustice, he must immediately come forward. "Why injustice? These poor animals, they are also my subject. How you can kill them? He's also born in this land." "National" means one is born in that particular land. So they are also born in this land. Why he should be treated differently? Just like in your country, even one Indian gets his child here, the child is counted as USA-born, US citizen, eh? Immediately. So if that is the law, that anyone born in this land should be treated as national, what is this law that the cows and the bulls born in that land, they are to be slaughtered? What is this law?
So it is the duty of the king, emperor... Immediately detected that "Why these poor animals are being killed? They are also subject to the laws of the state." As the human being requires protection, similarly, the cows... Not only cows; everyone requires protection by the government. Why they should be not protected? Therefore because the protection was not given to the cows and the bulls, he immediately took him that "This rascal is not a kṣatriya; he's a śūdra. In the dress of a king, he's doing mischievous activities. Immediately punish him." This is government's duty. If anyone... Just like, anyone is breaking law, it is the duty of the government to chastise him, similarly, the law should be... Exact good government law means that anyone who kills an animal without sanction... Of course, they now give sanction that "Yes, you can kill as many animals in the slaughterhouse as you like," because the government is śūdra. Government, it is not kṣatriya. So therefore is no protection. Why animal? Even a human being, if he's being killed on the street, on the broad [indistinct], nobody cares for it. So this is the position. But Parīkṣit Mahārāja was not such a king or such a head of the executive... He immediately punished. Therefore it is mentioned specially, ojasā vīraḥ kalim: Kali is to be punished.
The Kali begins with this animal killing. That is Kali-yuga. Meat-eating. Therefore, to avoid the influence of Kali we have to give up this habit. The four things are Kali's disciple, friends. We have already discussed this. So one friend is this meat-eating problem, the butchers, Kali's friends. And the liquor distiller, he's also Kali's friend. And the gamblers or the gambling house maintainer, and prostitute house maintainer, these are friends of Kali. Now you will find all over the world these things are very prominent---clubs and butcher house and liquor house and gambling house. Therefore the whole atmosphere is Kali.
So because it is now Kali age, just like winter season, everywhere is cold, chilliest, so similarly. because this is the age of Kali, therefore even in India... This king, Mahārāja Parīkṣit, was in India. He wanted to chastise this rascal in the dress of a king and attempting kill cows. So this was in India. Maybe in other place also, because the king was touring. So not only in India; all over the world the Vedic civilization was there. Five thousand years ago, everywhere the..., all people used to follow the Vedic principles. That is the proof. Because the king was following the Vedic principles. So this cow-killing by the Kali, it is said it was done on the border of India, somewhere near Sindhu Pradesh, so Afghanistan, like that. So anyway, it was on this planet, and he wanted to prohibit. But India is the center. This king, Mahārāja Parīkṣit, his headquarter was Hastināpura, near New Delhi at the present moment. Hastināpura. There is a place still, Hastināpura. There is one broken fort also. They say this fort belonged to the Pāṇḍavas. People go there to see. Anyway, now the king was so strict that even outside India some cow was being attempted to be killed, he immediately took his sword to punish him. Now in India they are killing ten thousand cows daily. This is Kali-yuga. Still, they have got some sentiment about cow-killing. There was about say five or six years ago, there was good agitation. But who cares for that? Because the government is śūdra = nṛpa-liṅga. They have taken the position of government, but they are all full of śūdras. Now in India not only killing cows... We had never seen... In Bombay this time I saw in our Juhu---big, big signboards = beef shop. Beef shop. So Hindus are there also now taking. I asked one lady, she was meat-eater. So I asked her, "Do you eat cow's meat, cow's flesh?" "Yes, sometimes." So this is Kali-yuga. Now government is encouraging drinking and meat-eating. And illicit sex, that is..., that has become now a common affair, anywhere you go. Why you should..., you should have to go to brothel? Even big, big other places. I don't wish to mention. You see.
So this is the age of Kali. So simply full of sinful activities, that's all. That is Kali-yuga. But sinful activities will not help us. That they have no brain to understand. You have to purify yourself. Sinful activities will involve you more and more in the cycle of birth and death. You will take sometimes birth as a king or as a demigod, and sometimes as the worm of the stool. Because according to your karma, you will get next body. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa [SB 3.31.1]. Therefore the process is at least don't act sinfully. Then you will get higher-class birth. Ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthāḥ [Bg. 14.18]. You will get chance of taking your birth in higher planetary system where the standard of living is many, many thousands better than this planet. Just like Svargaloka, Janaloka. From our śāstra we understand that the inhabitants of Candraloka, moon planet, they live for ten thousands of years. But these rascals are going there, they do not find any living entity. So that is the contradiction. But we believe that in the moon planet... And why we shall not believe? If the living entities are found everywhere, so why..., what moon planet has done that there should be no living entity? From our experience we can see living entity is there on the land, in the air, in the water, even in the fire. So every planet is made of these five elements = earth, water, fire, air, sky. So we find by practical experience that in the water there is living entity, on the land there is living entity, within the land there is living entity. So why in the moon planet or other planet there should be no living entity? That's a wrong theory.
Long, long ago, sometimes in 1930, I had a talk in Allahabad with a great scientist, Dr. Shah. He said that there is no reason to disbelieve that in other planets there is no living entity. And recently one Russian scientist also said that there are many planets where very, very intelligent class of men are there. So that is our theory, that the..., if you go to the higher planetary system, you will find more comfortable standard of life, the duration of life is very long, and the people are very, very intelligent. They are called demigods. So whatever it may be, we have to follow our own principle, and there is no reason to disbelieve that in other planets there are no living entities. We cannot accept it.
So anyway, in every planet there is kingdom or there is government. Because in the Bhagavad-gītā we understand, Kṛṣṇa says,
imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ
proktavān aham avyayam
vivasvān manave prāha
manur ikṣvākave 'bravīt
[Bg. 4.1]
Kṛṣṇa said that "This philosophy, this Bhagavad-gītā yoga system, I first of all explained to the sun-god, whose name is Vivasvān." He spoke the same principle to his son Manu, and Manu also spoke the same principle to his son, Ikṣvāku. So Ikṣvāku came from the sun planet. He happens to be the grandson of Vivasvān. So how you can say that in the sun planet there is no possibility of life? We get the history. And if you say that "In fire how one can live?" No. As we see that in water some other living entities can live, similarly, I may not be able to live in the fire, but there are other living entities who can live there. That should be the right conclusion. Because fire is as good another material element as the water is. As water is also one of the material elements, fire is also one of the eight material elements. So if we can see by our practical experience there are living entities in the water, so why not living entities in the fire? And in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said that living entity, this spiritual spark, is not affected by material influence. In the Vedas also it is said, asaṅgo hy ayaṁ puruṣaḥ [Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 4.15]. It has nothing to do with this material condition. Adāhyo 'yam [Bg. 2.24]. This special word is used that it cannot burned by the fire. Aśoṣyam, it cannot be dried up by air. Acchedyam, it cannot be cut into pieces. These things are there. So we are firmly convinced that in the sun planet there is also living entity, and the king or the president there is called Vivasvān, his name is Vivasvān. And our gāyatrī-mantra is worshiping the sun planet = oṁ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ tat savitur vareṇyaṁ bhargo devasya dhīmahi. So this is the Vedic conception. Every planet there is king, and the king's duty is to see that everyone is executing his professional occupational duty.
So Mahārāja Parīkṣit also, he used to go for examining. Therefore it is said, digvijaye kvacit. Not that at a particular time he went out to..., for touring. But he was going, say, yearly or six-monthly. And one of his tour he found that a person dressed like a king was attempting to kill cows, and he punished him. So this is the statement.
Thank you very much.
Devotees: Jaya Śrīla Prabhupāda. [end]