Prabhupāda:
...bahudhā gītaṁ
chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak
brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva
hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ
[Bg. 13.5]
Yesterday we were discussing tat kṣetram, kṣetram, this body, how we enter into different types of bodies, how it is obtained. There are 8,400,000 forms of body according to the qualities. Three qualities = three multiplied by three, it becomes nine; nine multiplied by nine, it becomes eighty-one. So at least, in the lower grades of forms, there are eighty-one lakhs, or 8,100,000, and above that, about 400,000 forms of human being.
So one has to understand. Unfortunately, people are so foolish at the present moment that they do not believe even in the next life. Mūḍha. What to speak of understanding God and Kṛṣṇa, they have no even the basic principle of spiritual knowledge. Basic principle of spiritual knowledge is to understand that "I am not this body. I am spirit soul. I am now fallen in this material condition, and therefore, according to my different desires, I am accepting different types of bodies and wandering throughout the whole universe---sometimes this body, sometimes that body, sometimes in this planet, sometimes in other planet. This has become my unfortunate condition of life."
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore says, ei rūpe brahmāṇḍa bhramite kono bhāgyavān jīva [Cc. Madhya 19.151]. We are wandering in this cycle of birth and death and wandering in the universe. In this way, in the process of our wandering, some way or other, if we become fortunate by association of devotees, by understanding the Vedic knowledge... Jñāna-vairāgya-yuktāya [SB 1.2.12]. Human life is meant for achieving knowledge and vairāgya, not that to increase the animal propensities even up to the point of death. That is not human life. Human life is meant for tapasya. Tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena śuddhyet sattvam [SB 5.5.1].
Unfortunately, the modern civilization does not care for all these things, and... It is very risky civilization. Because nature's process is that as you create your mentality, you get next life a similar body. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa jantor dehopapattaye [SB 3.31.1]. You, in this body, you have to work, because this material world means one has to work. So by your karmaṇā, if your karma is not adjusted, if you do not work as a human being to be promoted to the qualification of a brāhmaṇa and then surpass the brāhmaṇa qualification and become a Vaiṣṇava, then your life is not perfect. Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇum [SB 7.5.31].
When our aim of life will be to understand our relationship with Viṣṇu... Na te viduḥ. But we do not know it. We are so much captivated by the external energy, māyā, that the whole program is how to forget Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But our real aim of life is to know our relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu. Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇuṁ durāśayā [SB 7.5.31]. They are trying to become happy within this material world. Durāśayā ye bahir artha-māninaḥ. Bahiḥ, bahiḥ means external energy. God has got parasya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate [Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 6.8, Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport]. He has got multi-energies. All these multi-energies have been grossly divided into three = the external energy, the internal energy and the marginal energy. So we living entities, we are the marginal energy. Marginal means between the two, spiritual energy and material energy.
At the present moment, those who are in this material world, we are under the influence of material energy. But we can get out of this material energy by bhagavad-bhakti. Mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etān taranti te. By our surrendering to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, we can get out of these clutches of external energy and again become under the internal energy. Mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivī prakṛtim āśritāḥ [Bg. 9.13]. Now we are under the influence of mahāmāyā. When we put ourselves under the influence of yogamāyā, then we again go back to home, back to Godhead.
So this is a great science, and Vedic literature profusely has described this science, how to get out of these clutches of external energy. That Kṛṣṇa says in the next verse = ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītam. Ṛṣibhiḥ, not ordinary persons; rsi, great... Just like Vyāsadeva. Mahārṣi, devarṣi, rājarṣi, ṛṣi. Formerly the brāhmaṇas, they were ṛṣis, and the kṣatriyas also, they were also just like ṛṣis. Therefore they are called rājarṣi. The spiritual science is not understandable by ordinary men. Just like Kṛṣṇa says in the Fourth Chapter, imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ: "This science was understood by the great rājarṣi." Just like Mahārāja Yudhisthira, rājarṣi; Lord Rāmacandra, rājarṣi; Mahārāja Parīkṣit, rājarṣi; Mahārāja Ikṣvāku, rājarṣi. There are many. They were rājarṣis. The monarchy was not a cheap thing. The king was as good as a ṛṣi. Therefore they are called rājarṣi. The king used to rule over the citizens on the permission of the great, great sages. Just like Nārada, the devarṣi. He used to visit Mahārāja Yudhisthira. Similarly, other kings.
So spiritual science is meant for great personalities---brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas---not for the vaiśyas and the śūdras. One has to get to the quality of brāhmaṇa and kṣatriya. So Kṛṣṇa says, therefore, imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ. Unless one is ṛṣi, great ṛṣi, great saintly persons, one cannot understand the spiritual science. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says... Although Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, He can personally say anything which is authorized, still He is giving reference to the statement of the ṛṣis. This is the way of Vedic understanding. You cannot establish anything dogmatically = "In my opinion it is like that." What you are, nonsense? What is your opinion? Even Kṛṣṇa says, ṛṣibhir..., ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītam. There are different kinds of ṛṣis---Gautama Ṛṣi, Kaṇada Ṛṣi... They have spoken different... In India there are six kinds of philosophies, but they are not recognized. Ṛṣibhiḥ, just like Devala Ṛṣi, Nārada Ṛṣi, Vyāsadeva, Asita Ṛṣi, Valmīki Ṛṣi, they are recognized. Ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītam. So they have got different philosophical ways to understand.
Therefore Bhāgavata summarizes that tarko 'pratiṣṭhaḥ śrutayo vibhinnā nāsau ṛṣir yasya mataṁ na bhinnam [Mahābhārata, Vana-parva 313.117, Cc. Madhya 25.57] = he's not a ṛṣi whose opinion is not different. Yes. You are a ṛṣi. You have got some different system of philosophy. And if I want to become a ṛṣi, then I must disagree with you. Just like in the modern days it is going on, scientific research, philosophical research. Therefore it is said, nāsau ṛṣir yasya mataṁ na vibhinnam: "One cannot become a rsi unless he gives his personal different opinion." Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītam.
Then which one we have to accept? We have to accept... That is stated in the Vedic literature. Nāsau ṛṣir yasya mataṁ na bhinnam. Śrutayo vibhinnāḥ. Vedic literature---Sāma, Yajur, Ṛg, Artharva---they are different. They are one, but we understand differently, according to our quality of understanding. Otherwise, all Vedic literature aims to understand Kṛṣṇa. Vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ [Bg. 15.15]. That is the purpose of Veda, to understand Kṛṣṇa. After many, many births of studying of Vedic literature in the process of jñāna-mārga, when one becomes actually wise, bahūnāṁ janmanām ante [Bg. 7.19], when he is actually wise, jñānavān māṁ prapadyante, he understands Kṛṣṇa and surrenders unto Him. That is actually understanding. So chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak.
But Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Bhagavān, is specially referring herewith, brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva. Brahma-sūtra means Vedānta-sūtra. Vedānta-sūtra He's referring. That is approved. There are different philosophical ways = parāmaṇu-vāda, nirviśeṣa-vāda, saviśeṣavāda, māyāvāda. They are all rejected. Simply brahma-sūtra padaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ [Bg. 13.5]. Brahma-sūtra means Vedānta-sūtra. It is called Brahma-sūtra because the first aphorism of Vedānta-sūtra is athāto brahma jijñāsā: "This human life is meant for inquiry about Brahman, the Absolute Truth." That is human life. Therefore it is called Brahma-sūtra. What is Brahman. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Janmādy asya yataḥ. Janmādy asya yataḥ [SB 1.1.1] = "Brahman is the supreme source of everything."
So therefore Brahma-sūtra is called nyāya-prasthāna. Nyāya-prasthāna, śruti-prasthāna, smṛti-prasthāna. We have to accept this prasthāna, the process of progress, to understand the Absolute Truth. So Brahma-sūtra is called nyāya-prasthāna. By logic, sufficient logic, Brahma-sūtra. Kṛṣṇa says therefore, brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ [Bg. 13.5]. Hetumat, with reason, you must understand.
tac chraddadhānā munayo
jñāna-vairāgya-yuktayā
paśyanty ātmānam ātmāni
bhaktyā śruta-gṛhītayā
[SB 1.2.12]
Bhaktyā śruta-gṛhītayā. Tac chraddadhānā munayo jñāna-vairāgya-yuktayā. One can understand the Absolute Truth... Absolute Truth means the Bhagavān ultimately.
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam
brahmeti paramātmeti
bhagavān iti śabdyate
[SB 1.2.11]
That is paratattva, Absolute Truth, which is known by somebody as Brahman and somebody as Paramātmā and somebody the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The beginners, they understand... The beginners' or the neophyte realization is impersonal Brahman. Brahmeti. Further advanced... This is the achievement of the jñānī. Those who are speculating on the Absolute Truth, they can understand the Absolute Truth in the impersonal feature. And those who are still further advanced, yogīs... Not only speculating, but they are practicing actually, they are called yogīs. Dhyānāvasthita-tad-gatena manasā paśyanti yaṁ yoginaḥ [SB 12.13.1]. They are yogīs. Yogīs, dhyānāvasthita, in meditation the mind is absorbed always. Tad-gatena manasā. Tad-gatena means viṣṇu-gatena, oṁ tat sat. Tad-gatena manasā, by the mind, absorbed in Viṣṇu understanding. Tad-gatena manasā paśyanti yaṁ yoginaḥ, yasyāntaṁ na viduḥ surāsura-gaṇā devāya tasmai namaḥ, devāya tasmai namaḥ
yaṁ brahmā-varuṇendra-rudrāḥ stuvanti divyaiḥ stavair
vedaiḥ sāṅgopad-kramopaniṣadair gāyanti yaṁ sāma-gāḥ
[SB 12.13.1].
So yogīs are in the second stage of self-realization, but ultimate realization is Bhagavān. Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam [SB 1.3.28]. Bhagavān has got many expansions---Rāma, Nṛsiṁha, Varāha... First expansion is Balarāma, then Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, then Nārāyaṇa. In this way, Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. In this way the viṣṇu-tattva is expanded. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam ādyaṁ purāṇa-puruṣaṁ nava-yauvanaṁ ca [Bs. 5.33]. So in this way there are many śāstras, many Vedic literature, many explanation. But here Kṛṣṇa gives special reference to the Brahma-sūtra, Vedānta-sūtra. Jñāna-vairāgya-yuktayā [SB 1.2.12] means one has to learn very nicely Vedānta-sūtra. And the explanation of Vedānta-sūtra, natural comment on Vedānta-sūtra, is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Bhāṣyāyāṁ brahma-sūtrāṇām.
This Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the natural commentary. Because the author, Vyāsadeva, after compiling Vedānta-sūtra under the instruction of Nārada Muni, his guru---Vyāsadeva's guru is Nārada Muni---he was not satisfied even after compiling Vedānta-sūtra. He was not very happy. So Nārada Muni advised him that "You should directly describe the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Then you'll be happy. It is indirect. All the Vedic literatures, they are indirect. You directly..." Therefore Vyāsadeva took Vedānta-sūtra, and from the very beginning of Vedānta-sūtra, janmādy asya yataḥ, he commented on the Vedānta-sutra, janmādy asya yataḥ anvayad itarataś cārtheṣv abhijñaḥ svarāṭ, tene brahma hṛdā ya ādi-kavaye muhyanti yatra sūrayaḥ, in this way. Here Kṛṣṇa personally gives the Brahma-sūtra. So Brahma-sūtra's commentary is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Therefore if we want to understand spiritual truth as it is, then the beginning is Kṛṣṇa's instruction, this Bhagavad-gītā. Try to understand Bhagavad-gītā very nicely, and if you can understand Bhagavad-gītā nicely, perfectly, then you try to study Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Śrīmad-bhāgavatam amalaṁ purāṇam [SB 12.13.18]. Amalaṁ purāṇam, "transcendental Purāṇa." Purāṇa means supplementary Vedic literature, "that which completes." Because directly, Vedic literature is very difficult to understand by the common man. Common man... Vedic literature is not for common man; even by the highly learned brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas.
Therefore Purāṇas are there and Mahābhārata is also there. Mahābhārata is meant for strī-śūdra-dvija-bandhūnāṁ trayi na śruti-gocaraḥ [SB 1.4.25]. Strī, woman, śūdra, and dvija-bandhu. Dvija-bandhu means born in a brāhmaṇa family, but he's not a brāhmaṇa. That is the dvija-bandhu, "friend of a brāhmaṇa." One who is not qualified brāhmaṇa---satyaḥ śamo damas titikṣaḥ arjavam, jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyam brahma-karma svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.42]---he's simply giving his identification, "I am brāhmaṇa," without any qualification of a brāhmaṇa, he's called dvija-bandhu, "friend of a brāhmaṇa." Just like a son of a high-court judge, he can say---he has got the right---that "I am friend of my father, or my son of high-court judge." That you can say. But you cannot say that you are high-court judge. It is a qualification. Even though you are a son of a high-court judge, if you have no qualification, how you can say that "I am court judge"?
But that is going on, especially in India. I have no qualification of a brāhmaṇa, but still, I say, "I'm brāhmaṇa." But they are called dvija-bandhu. Dvija-bandhu. You cannot say. Brahma jānāti iti brāhmaṇaḥ. If you have got full knowledge of Brahman, then you are a brāhmaṇa. Jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma karma svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.42]. And Nārada Muni says that these qualifications can be acquired by others also. As a son of a brāhmaṇa can, by bad association, disqualify himself, similarly, a son of a non-brāhmaṇa, he can qualify himself. It is education. It is not that it is monopoly by a certain section. No. That is not the Vedic injunction. Vedic injunction is, as it is in the Bhagavad-gītā = catur-varṇyaṁ māyā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13]. Guṇa-karma. You must have the qualities of a brāhmaṇa or a kṣatriya or a vaiśya or a śūdra. There are four divisions of the society. So if you have the qualification of a brāhmaṇa, guṇa, and if you act as a brāhmaṇa, then you are a brāhmaṇa. You have no qualification, you don't act as a brāhmaṇa---how you claim yourself as brāhmaṇa? No. That is not allowed. This is śāstric injunction.
Nārada Muni says, yad anyatrāpi dṛśyeta tat tenaiva vinirdiśet [SB 7.11.35]. Every has got qualification. That is very natural. That is very natural. Yasya hi yal-lakṣaṇaṁ syād varṇābhivyanjakam [SB 7.11.35]. To ascertain which class a man belongs, whether he is a brāhmaṇa or a kṣatriya or vaiśya, there are qualifications. Just like ordinarily we know, we understand an engineer by qualification, a medical practitioner by qualification. We don't ask, "Whose son you are, Mr. Engineer?" No. If you have got engineer's qualification, you are engineer. Otherwise, how can you be engineer? Similarly, yasya hi yal-lakṣaṇaṁ syād varṇābhivyanjakam. Varṇa. This is brahminical quality.
In Bhagavad-gītā it is said, satyaḥ śamo damas titikṣaḥ arjavam. Sauryaṁ tejo yuddhe cāpy apālayanam [Bg. 18.43]---kṣatriya. Kṣatriya must be very heroic. He'll never go away from fighting. If a kṣatriya is challenged, "I want to fight with you," "Yes, come on." That is kṣatriya. Similarly, brāhmaṇa. These are qualifications. So if such qualification is acquired by somebody else, even though he's not born in that family, Nārada Muni says, tat tenaiva vinirdiśet [SB 7.11.35]. If a brāhmaṇa has not acquired the brahminical qualifications but a kṣatriya qualification or a vaiśya qualification or a śūdra qualification, then, according to the quality, guṇa, and work, he should be ascertained. Similarly, others also. Yad anyatrāpi dṛśyeta [SB 7.11.35]. This is śāstric injunction. And Kṛṣṇa therefore refers to brahma-sūtra padaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ [Bg. 13.5]. So we have to accept the Vedānta-sūtra, knowledge, through Vedānta-sūtra. Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī says knowledge means veda-jñāna. Vedānta-sūtra jñāna, that is knowledge. Because it is very reasonably stated. Reasonably. Hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ.
So Kṛṣṇa gives the authority of Vedānta-sūtra. So we should have to accept the authority of Vedānta-sūtra and try to understand. But Vedānta-sūtra is explained in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and if we accept Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam... First study Bhagavad-gītā, and when we are actually realized... What is realization Bhagavad-gītā? Realization of Bhagavad-gītā is to know Kṛṣṇa---the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is realization. Ārādhyo bhagavān vrajeśa-tanayaḥ [Caitanya-manjusa]. Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā, mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjaya [Bg. 7.7] = "There is no more superior authority than Me." If we accept that, that Kṛṣṇa is the supreme authority, then you'll learn Bhagavad-gītā. And if you try to make minus Kṛṣṇa, or if you want to take the position of Kṛṣṇa like the Māyāvādīs, then you become a rascal; there is no knowledge of Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā means to accept Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And Kṛṣṇa also demands, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]. That is the authority.
So when one accepts Kṛṣṇa as the supreme authority, then he can be... Just like after passing your entrance examination, you can be admitted in the degree college, similarly, Bhagavad-gītā is the A-B-C-D of spiritual knowledge. People even cannot understand the A-B-C-D, what to speak of graduation, bās, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. They have become so fool, so degraded. Simple thing they cannot understand. This is the position. Therefore our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is trying its best to make people to understand Bhagavad-gītā as it is, without any nonsensical interpretation. This is our mission.
But people will not take that. If we give some bluff, that "Kṛṣṇa means... You are also Kṛṣṇa. I am also Kṛṣṇa. Why Kṛṣṇa alone shall be God? You are also God, I am also...," these things will be very much appreciated. Because he bluffs. But that bluffing may be very pleasing to the demons, but those who are actually student of Bhagavad-gītā, they'll not accept this bluff. So therefore Kṛṣṇa says,
manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu
kaścid yatati siddhaye
yatatāṁ api siddhānāṁ
kaścid vetti māṁ tattvataḥ
[Bg. 7.3]
To understand Kṛṣṇa is difficult job, because Kṛṣṇa says, manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu: "In thousands and thousands of people, one may be interested for siddhi." What is that siddhi? Siddhi, perfection. The perfection is how to get out of these material clutches, how to stop this repetition of birth, death, old age and... That is called siddhi. So kaścid yatati siddhaye.
Who is interested? They are dying like cats and dogs. They have accepted, "Oh, death is..." That's all. But there is a solution of death, but they are not interested. They are prepared to die like cats and dogs. That's all. The human life is meant for making solution of birth, death, old age and disease, but they will not take it. "Oh, that's all right. Let us die." "You are going to accept a next life as a tree." "Never mind." They say like that. "I'll forget." "No, you'll have to stand up seven thousand years in one place." "That's all right." They have become so dull. This is called Kali-yuga. Mandāḥ sumanda-matayo manda-bhāgyā hy upadrutāḥ [SB 1.1.10]. Very slow, very bad. Manda means very bad. Sumanda-matayo, and if one has got some path or some sect, that is also adulterated, nuisance. Manda-matayoḥ. Manda-bhāgyaḥ, unfortunate. Even people have no idea what he's going to eat tomorrow. Actually, these things are coming. Manda-bhāgya, most unfortunate. And upadrutāḥ, always disturbed by so many natural disturbances, health disturbances, political disturbances. This is the position.
So there is great necessity of pushing on this movement, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, so that their life may be perfect. Although it is a difficult job, but still, we are trying our best. If people take advantage of this movement, then the whole problems of his life will be solved. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. [end]