Prabhupāda: So we have been discussing Bhagavad-gītā. In Second Chapter, the Lord has very elaborately explained the constitutional position of the living entity, and the whole first portion of the six chapters... The Bhagavad-gītā is divided into three portions = the first six chapter, the second six chapters and the third six chapters.
Actually, just like this book, there are two hard covers, and in the middle there is the substance, writing. So the first six chapters, they are just like two covering = karma-yoga and jñāna-yoga. And the middle six chapters, well-protected, that is bhakti-yoga.
So at the end of the first six chapters, Kṛṣṇa concludes the yoga system. In the Sixth Chapter He has explained the sāṅkhya-yoga system, and the concluding portion of the sāṅkhya-yoga system is:
yoginām api sarveṣāṁ
mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ
sa me yuktatamo mataḥ
[Bg. 6.47]
This is the conclusion of the yoga system. People, generally, they are attracted by the yoga system. So the yoga system means always thinking of Kṛṣṇa. That is samādhi.
So five thousand years ago, when...
[pause---noise of fireworks in background]
Five thousand years ago, when this yoga system was discussed between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, Arjuna frankly admitted that this system was very difficult for him. He thought himself as a gṛhastha and a military man, so concentration of the mind and sitting in a posture and looking on the point of the nose, so many system---find out a secluded place, alone, and observing so many rules and regulation, āsana, dhyāna, dhāraṇā, prāṇāyāma---so he thought it difficult for him. Therefore Kṛṣṇa, in order to encourage him, that although he could not practice the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system, still there was no cause of disappointment. He concluded, therefore,
tapasvibhyo 'dhiko yogī
jñānibhyo 'pi mato 'dhikaḥ
karmibhyaś cādhiko yogī
tasmād yogī bhavārjuna.
[Bg. 6.46]
He insisted...
[aside:] Why you are sitting like that, sleeping? If you feel sleepy don't sit like that.
So the conclusion is,
yoginām api sarveṣāṁ
mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ
sa me yuktatamo mataḥ
[Bg. 6.47]
This is the conclusion, that "Of all yogīs, who is always thinking of Me, śraddhāvān..." Without being śraddhāvān... Śraddhā is the beginning of everything. Faith, śraddhā, respect. If you have no respect for Kṛṣṇa, if you have no faith in Kṛṣṇa, there is no advancement of spiritual life or yoga life. Therefore it is said śraddhāvān. Ādau śraddhā.
The beginning of spiritual life is śraddhā, faith. Ādau śraddhā. Ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-saṅgaḥ [Cc. Madhya 23.14-15]. First of all, faith, and faith has been described by Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī as..., faith means viśvāsa. So he explains:
'śraddhā'-śabde-viśvāsa sudṛḍha niścaya, sudṛḍha niścaya
kṛṣṇe bhakti kaile sarva-karma kṛta haya
[Cc. Madhya 22.62]
This is the śraddhā. Śraddhā means firm faith. As Kṛṣṇa says, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66].
So unless one has got faith. Why one should consider himself that "I must be completely surrendered to Kṛṣṇa," unless one has got faith? Therefore faith is the beginning. And to create faith, Kṛṣṇa has explained about Himself in the whole Bhagavad-gītā. So one who is fortunate, after reading Bhagavad-gītā thoroughly, he'll have a strong faith in Kṛṣṇa. If you have failed to achieve this status of faith, then there is no question of progress.
That is explained by Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī = śraddhā-śabde viśvāsa kahe sudṛḍha niścaya [Cc. Madhya 22.62]. Śraddhā means firm faith, with conviction, "Yes, if I surrender to Kṛṣṇa, then all my business will be perfect, all my spiritual life will be perfect." Therefore Kṛṣṇa says śraddhāvān bhajate; with śraddhā, with full faith. Ādau śraddhā. Beginning is śraddhā.
If one has developed a little śraddhā... Just like we are giving chance throughout the whole world by this propaganda, opening centers to create little śraddhā. And if the śraddhā is there, then next stage is sādhu-saṅga [Cc. Madhya 22.83]. If one wants to become Kṛṣṇa conscious, if he has developed a little faith in it, the next stage is to associate with sādhu.
And who is sādhu? Sādhu..., sādhavaḥ sādhu-bhūṣaṇāḥ. Titikṣavaḥ kāruṇikāḥ suhṛdaḥ sarva-bhūtānām. So sādhu means very tolerant. In another place, sādhu is described in the Bhagavad-gītā = bhajate mām ananya-bhāk sādhur eva sa mantavyaḥ [Bg. 9.30]. Api cet su-durācāro bhajate mām ananya-bhāk sādhur eva sa mantavyaḥ.
In another place in the Bhāgavata the sādhu is described:
titikṣavaḥ kāruṇikāḥ
suhṛdaḥ sarva-dehinām
ajāta-śatravaḥ śāntāḥ
sādhavaḥ sādhu-bhūṣaṇāḥ
[SB 3.25.21]
A sādhu, the first qualification is he must be a staunch devotee of Kṛṣṇa, or God, whatever you say. That is sādhu. That is the basic definition... Religion means to abide by the orders of God. That is religion. And sādhu means who is staunchly a devotee of Kṛṣṇa. These are the description of sādhu. Therefore sādhu-saṅga means to associate with devotees, those who are devotees of Kṛṣṇa. That is sādhu-saṅga.
Caitanya Mahāprabhu, in another place, says = sādhu-saṅga sādhu-saṅga sarva-śāstre kaya lava-mātra sādhu-saṅga... Sādhu-saṅga sādhu-saṅga sarva..., lava-mātra sādhu-saṅge sarva-siddhi haya [Cc. Madhya 22.54]. Sādhu-saṅga is very important.
If we can associate with real sādhu, means real devotee, unadulterated devotee, anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁ jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam [Brs. 1.1.11], then the recommendation is that simply by associating with sādhu all perfection will come. By simply association. Sādhu-saṅga sādhu-saṅga sarva-śāstre kaya, lava-mātra sādhu-saṅge sarva-siddhi.
So this is very practical. We have got little experience how sādhu-saṅga is powerful. So ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-saṅgaḥ. First thing is faith.
ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-saṅgo 'tha bhajana-kriyā
tato 'nartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt tato niṣṭhā tato rucis tataḥ
athāsaktis tato bhāvas...
sādhakānām ayaṁ premṇaḥ prādurbhāve bhavet kramaḥ
[Cc. Madhya 23.14-15]
These are the steps, krama. Krama means one after another. So our this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is enacted just to create little faith in Kṛṣṇa. Then the person whom we are trying to help, his business is to associate with sādhu. Satāṁ prasaṅgān mama vīrya-saṁvido..., hṛt-karṇa-rasāyanāḥ kathāḥ [SB 3.25.25]. Satāṁ prasaṅgāt. If we discuss Kṛṣṇa consciousness... Boddhayantaṁ parasparaṁ tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca. Everywhere, the same thing.
So the śraddhā is required. Then sādhu-saṅga [Cc. Madhya 22.83], then bhajana-kriyā. If anyone actually seriously associate with sādhu, the next stage will be bhajana-kriyā: how to worship. Bhajana-kriyā. Tataḥ anartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt. Then anartha. Anartha means unnecessary things. We have practiced so many unnecessary things in our life. That unnecessary things, when they are too much strong, that becomes sinful life. Unnecessary. The modern civilization is simply meant for creating unnecessary necessities of life. That's all.
So we are becoming deviated from God. The more we are advancing in so-called material civilization, we are more becoming far away from God. Therefore Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has sung, jaḍa-bidyā yata, māyāra vaibhava, tomāra bhajane bādhā. Jaḍa-bidyā, the material education, they are simply paraphernalia of this illusory energy, māyāra vaibhava. And the effect of this advancement of material civilization means stopping one's relationship with God.
Jaḍa-bidyā yata, māyāra vaibhava, tomāra bhajane bādhā, anitya saṁsāre. Anitya means this temporary life, this... Everyone, we are in this material world, say, for fifty years, sixty years, hundred years. That is temporary. In the unlimited time, a duration of life, say of hundred years, that is nothing. Even, not even a point. It is very temporary, but in this temporary life we are addicted to so many unnecessary things, and we are forgetting our real business = how to go to home, back to home, back to Godhead.
Therefore Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura laments... He was a great, responsible government officer, magistrate, but a great devotee of the Lord, and he's one of the ācāryas, Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura. So he writes about his own experience that jaḍa-bidyā yata, māyāra vaibhava, tomāra bhajane bādhā: the more we make advancement in the temporary materialistic comforts, the more we become implicated in unnecessary things, and they are all impediments for making progress in spiritual life. That is his opinion.
And that's a fact. We have seen in Western countries, they are still more materially advanced, but spiritually they are dull, block-headed, spiritually. Very difficult to convince them spiritually. So sādhu-saṅga [Cc. Madhya 22.83], by association of sādhu one can achieve advancement in spiritual life. And in all śāstras it is recommended that associate.
Cāṇakya Paṇḍita, the great politician, you know, he also says, tyaja durjana-saṅgam..., tyaja durjana-saṅgaṁ bhaja sādhu-samāgamam. Tyaja durjana-saṅga: give up association with bad elements. What are the bad elements? That is also explained by Caitanya Mahāprabhu. A devotee asked Him that what should be the behavior of a person who is spiritually inclined, or Vaiṣṇava. Spiritually inclined means Vaiṣṇava.
So Caitanya Mahāprabhu said that asat-saṅga-tyāga ei vaiṣṇava-ācāra [Cc. Madhya 22.87]. Those who are interested in spiritual life, or to become a devotee, the first business is to give up the association of bad elements. Asat-saṅga-tyāga vaiṣṇava-ācāra. In one line. Then next question is then who is asat? Asat eka strī-saṅgī kṛṣṇa-abhakta āra. There...
He has described who is asat. Strī-saṅgī. Strī-saṅgī means those who are unnecessary addicted to women. Unnecessary. One should be married. One must have children. That is not illicit association. But otherwise... Kṛṣṇa also says, dharmāviruddhaḥ kāmo 'smi. "Kāma, lust, sex life, which is not against religious principles, that I am. That kind of lust I am."
So dharma... So according to religious system, people should not be cats and dogs or hogs in the matter of sex life. They must have regulated life. They must have married wife, married husband. And only for nice children they should unite. These are the description given by the... Viṁśati prakāra dharma-śāstra, Manu-saṁhitā. Not otherwise.
Therefore it is called gṛhastha-āśrama. Āśrama. The sannyāsa-āśrama, gṛhastha-āśrama, vānaprastha-āśrama---everything is āśrama. We can understand, as soon as this word is used, āśrama, it means there is some spiritual tint or spiritual life. So gṛhastha, that is also spiritual life. One may live with wife and children and execute spiritual life. All the associates of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they were all gṛhasthas.
Caitanya Mahāprabhu Himself also was gṛhastha. So to become gṛhastha is not a disqualification. But to live as a gṛhastha according to the injunction of the śāstras, that is required. That, Kṛṣṇa says = dharmāviruddhaḥ kāma, "Which is not against religious principle, that sort of lust I am."
So when Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, asat eka strī-saṅgī, that means one who is not satisfied his, I mean to say, religious life with wife. That, that kind... He's asādhu. He's asādhu. Kṛṣṇa... Strī-saṅgī and kṛṣṇa-abhakta. He summarizes the description of asādhu in two words = one who is too much addicted to sense enjoyment and one who not a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, he's asādhu.
So Kṛṣṇa has also describe that,
na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ
prapadyante narādhamāḥ
māyayāpahṛta-jñānā
āsuraṁ bhāvam āśritāḥ
[Bg. 7.15]
So there are many descriptions in many śāstras that one should avoid asādhu and try to associate with sādhu. Then his life will be successful. Because human life is meant for spiritual advancement of life, not for advancement of eating, sleeping, mating and defending. That is cats' and dogs' life. Human life means advancement in spiritual life. Tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena śuddhyet sattvam [SB 5.5.1]. We have to purify our existence.
That people do not know, what is impure existence and pure existence. They do not know. There is no education, there is no science. The... Because we do not, do not understand that we are living entities, we are part and parcel of God. God is eternal, so I am also eternal.
God is always fresh; I am also fresh. Nityaḥ śāśvato 'yaṁ purāṇaḥ. Although Kṛṣṇa is the oldest person... Kṛṣṇa is ādi-puruṣa. He must be the oldest. But He... Nava-yauvanaṁ ca. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam ādyaṁ purāṇa-puruṣaṁ nava-yauvanam ca [Bs. 5.33]. This is Kṛṣṇa's feature. He is the ādi-puruṣa, the oldest.
Aham ādir hi devānām [Bg. 10.2], Kṛṣṇa says. "I am the origin of all the demigods, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Maheśvara." The Brahmā-saṁhitā supports it, that ādyaṁ purāṇa-puruṣam. Lord Brahmā says the Lord is ādyam, He's the origin. Kṛṣṇa also says = ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate [Bg. 10.8]. The Vedānta says, janmādy asya yataḥ [SB 1.1.1]. Janmādy asya yataḥ, the Supreme Lord.
So He's the oldest and we, being part and parcel, we are also the oldest. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām [Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13]. We are also nitya, and Kṛṣṇa is also nitya. We are also living entity with knowledge; Kṛṣṇa is also living entity with knowledge. Simply He's our leader. He's the Supreme. That's all.
So we do not know how our existence has been polluted. That we do not know. We are just like cats and dogs. We are taking birth and dying without any knowledge. Bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19]. But this is not our position. Our position is as good as Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is all-powerful; we are minute. He is vibhu; we are aṇu. That is the difference. Otherwise, qualitatively we are all one. So why you are under this obligation of taking birth and dying again? This is our impure existence. This is our impure existence.
So this human form of life is meant for purifying this existential position. No more birth, no more death. As soon as there is birth, there is death. If there is no birth, there is no death. So this can be done simply by Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Simply by developing Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā = janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ [Bg. 4.9]. Divyam, this word is used, divyam. So we have to undergo austerities, penances for this divyam, for transcendental life, divyam. Tapo divyam [SB 5.5.1], little tapasya.
In the Kali-yuga we cannot perform very severe... Kṛṣṇa is very kind. He has given us different opportunities for elevating to our transcendental life in different ages. In this age, because we are so fallen and so limited, and so badly associated that it is very difficult to undergo severe austerities and penances.... We cannot go into the forest. We cannot perform yoga systems very nicely. We cannot perform yajñas. We cannot worship the Lord in temple very nicely. So many difficulties.
Therefore śāstra has given us concession = kalau tad dhari-kīrtanāt. In this age, simply by chanting this Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, mahā-mantra, one can be elevated. Caitanya Mahāprabhu has blessed = ihā haite sarva-siddhi haya tomāra. If you chant this Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra you'll get all perfection. All perfection. So everything is there. But we do not wish to take advantage.
Tapasya, human life is meant for tapasya. We know in our Indian history all big, big kings, they went to the forest, tapasya. The King Bharata, Bharata Mahārāja, under whose name this planet is called Bhārata-varṣa, he left his kingdom, young wife, children, everything, at the age of twenty-four years, and he went for tapasya. So the Pāṇḍavas also. Everyone. The last stage of life should be especially meant for tapasya. Not that up to the point of death we shall remain addicted to this worldly life. No.
So this life is meant for purifying our existence. That means stop this cycle of birth and death. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam [Bg. 13.9]. We should always keep in front. We may think, we may be puffed up, as very much advanced in material comfort, but... You may do so, but at the same time you should keep in front, janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi.
You should always think that "What advancement we have made? Have we stopped dying? Have you stopped birth?" There are so many contraceptive method, but the population is increasing, the birth is going on. Similarly we have discovered so many nice medicines, but people are dying. You cannot stop this, birth, death. They are trying to remain as young men, as young women, but they are getting older.
So intelligent men should always keep in front that what advancement we have made---simply struggling. A struggle, a heavy struggle, a hard struggle. That struggle. And we are thinking, "This is advancement." You struggling just like ass. So the whole day and night you are working.
Actually I am working very hard, but I am thinking that I am advancing. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi. We are trying to find out so many medicine, so many humanitarian work. What is that? There is famine, there is struggle. Why don't you do something so that people will not be anymore in famine, any more in distress; there will be no more scarcity of water. That is required.
So these are the problems, and so however we may solve all these problem, the problem of material existence, birth, death, old age and disease, that cannot be stopped, either you become Brahmā or something like that. That is not possible. That is possible only by Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā:
mām upetya punar janma
duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam
nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ
saṁsiddhiṁ paramāṁ gatāḥ
[Bg. 8.15]
Mām upetya tu kaunteya, duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam. This world is recommended by the creator of this world as duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam. It is the place for miseries. And that also temporary. If you make..., want to make compromise, "All right, it may be miserable life. I will stay here," oh, that also you'll not be allowed. You'll be kicked out after some days.
You may try to become very comfortable, good income, good bank balance, or nice wife, nice car, but one day it will come you'll be kicked out = "Please get out." Finished. Mṛtyuḥ sarva-haraś cāham [Bg. 10.34]. Kṛṣṇa says that "I am mṛtyu. I take away everything. At that time, finished, everything."
So this is our foolishness, that we are trying to be happy in a place which is recommended by the creator Himself, duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam [Bg. 8.15]. Duḥkhālayam. This is called foolishness. Therefore Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says, anitya saṁsāre. We are already in a distressed place, and we are increasing our distressed condition of life. That means you are becoming more and more ass, by the name of so-called advancement of education.
Jaḍa-bidyā yata, māyāra vaibhava, tomāra bhajane bādhā. If, by advancement of civilization, we forget God and forget the mission of our life, that is nothing but to become like an ass. Unnecessary working. The ass... The example is given, the ass, because ass has no sense. He works very hard. The... You have got experience, the washerman's ass = it is loaded with three tons of cloth and takes it to the ghāṭa and again brings it. And what is the result? He gets little grass. That's all.
But he has no sense that "This grass, I can get anywhere. Why I am so working hard for this washerman?" Therefore it is ass. I'll take four cāpāṭis, but I am working so hard that there is no limit of my working. And one day Kṛṣṇa comes = "Please get out." Finished. So we are all asses. [chuckles] Therefore Kavirāja Gosvāmī says = kṛṣṇa yei bhaje se baḍa catura. Only intelligent man is he who is Kṛṣṇa conscious. Otherwise all asses. Kṛṣṇa yei bhaje se baḍa catura.
So that bhajana Kṛṣṇa is teaching us. He's beginning the yoga system:
yoginām api sarveṣāṁ
mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ
sa me yuktatamo mataḥ
[Bg. 6.47]
He's first-class yogī. So we shall discuss first-class yogī from tomorrow again. Thank you very much. [break]
Indian man: To what extent the Society has succeeded in India for propagating Kṛṣṇa consciousness?
Prabhupāda: Now you have come, it is success. It is success. You have come to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is our success. Formerly you were not coming. Now you have come. So that is our success. [break]
Indian man: [indistinct] Western materialistic countries, quite dangerous materialistic country, where India is forgotten the [indistinct]?
Prabhupāda: Because there is great propaganda to curb down by your leaders. They are naturally inclined. Anyone who takes birth in India, it is to be supposed that in his past life, he was spiritual. Bhārata-bhūmite manuṣya-janma haila yāra [Cc. Ādi 9.41]. There is great opportunity for persons who are born in India for spiritual advancement. Unfortunately, by force, by propaganda, we are suppressing them. That is the cause. We are suppressing them.
Otherwise, still we get experience. We hold these Hare Kṛṣṇa Festival in Calcutta, Bombay and other places---here also---many thousands of people are coming. Because at heart there is Kṛṣṇa consciousness, but by external forces they are being suppressed. That is going on.
It is not natural. It is unnatural. Natural is every Indian is Kṛṣṇa conscious. That is natural. By artificial means they are being suppressed. This is the misfortune of the present day of India. [break] ...can be done? There is no, in the educational system, no Bhagavad-gītā. Just see how much unfortunate...
One Indian girl in Berkeley University, she asked me, "Swāmījī, what is God?" Just see. She's Indian, where God takes birth, Rāmacandra, Kṛṣṇa, and she is now materially advanced; now she is asking what is God. This is our position. The land where God come, from that land a advanced student is asking, "What is God?" This is our advancement. Hare Kṛṣṇa.
Indian man (2): I have a question. Is it necessary that God should be worshiped in particular form only?
Prabhupāda: Well, there is only one form = bhakti. There is no other form. It is not a particular; it is the only. Just like there are nine holes in your body. The only one hole will be used for eating, not other holes. If you pushed your foodstuff in other holes, it will be useless. Similarly, God is one, and to understand God the only process is bhakti. That's all. There is no other process.
Indian man (2): How may a devotee arrive to this particular form?
Prabhupāda: This is in the śāstras. God says, bhaktyā mām abhijānāti [Bg. 18.55] = "Only through devotion one can understand Me." So not the devotee has discovered. God says. "This is the only way." If you want to know God, you must know Him by the process He recommends. Don't discover your own way.
Not that yato mata tato patha, you discover all rascal mata and God will be available. No. If you want to know God, then this is the only = bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ [Bg. 18.55]. That is the only way. There is no other way.
Chant. [end]