mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha
yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ
asaṁśayaṁ samagraṁ māṁ
yathā jñāsyasi tac chṛṇu
[Now hear, O son of Pṛthā [Arjuna], how by practicing yoga in full consciousness of Me, with mind attached to Me, you can know Me in full, free from doubt.]
So Kṛṣṇa is describing personally. Kṛṣṇa's name is Yogeśvara, and Lord Śiva's name is Yogīśvara. Yogeśvara means... Yoga, the connecting link between the soul and the Supersoul, or the Supreme and the minute living creatures—that is called yoga. Connecting. So the... Who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead? Yogeśvara. The ultimate object of yoga is Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa's name is Yogeśvara. Yatra yogeśvaraḥ hariḥ. At the conclusion of the Bhagavad-gītā it is said by Sañjaya, yatra yogeśvaraḥ hariḥ [Bg. 18.78].
[Wherever there is Kṛṣṇa, the master of all mystics, and wherever there is Arjuna, the supreme archer, there will also certainly be opulence, victory, extraordinary power, and morality. That is my opinion.]
The place where Yogeśvara, the supreme master of all yoga systems, Kṛṣṇa, is there... And yatra pārtho dhanañjaya, and where there is Arjuna, the greatest fighter, there is undoubtedly victory there.
Because Bhagavad-gītā was spoken... The narration which we are reading, it is the description of Sañjaya as secretary of Mahārāja Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Just like running from a radio. The play is going on in the auditorium, but you can hear from the room. Just like we have got now mechanical arrangement, similarly, at that time, maybe the same arrangement, but there was no machine.
Still, the secretary of Dhṛtarāṣṭra could see what was going on in the battlefield, and he was just narrating to Mahārāja Dhṛtarāṣṭra, who was blind. In other sense it may be said that there was television, and Dhṛtarāṣṭra, being blind, he could not see, and Sañjaya, his secretary, was explaining what was seen in the television. But this is the position.
Anyway, so the conclusion made by Sañjaya was this, yatra yogeśvaraḥ hariḥ [Bg. 18.78].
Hari means the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The side in which the Yogeśvara, Kṛṣṇa... My point is that Kṛṣṇa's name is Yogeśvara. Nobody can be better yogī than, or the master of yoga. There are different systems of yoga, and Kṛṣṇa is the master of yoga.
And Lord Śiva is called Yogīśvara. There are many different kinds of yogīs. Yoga means the system, and the yogī means the person who practices the system. So the object of yoga, ultimate goal of yoga, is to understand Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa consciousness means to practice the topmost type of yoga system.
So this yoga system is being described by Kṛṣṇa Himself. Why? Because He was teaching His most intimate friend, Arjuna. Vyākhyāta-lakṣaṇe svopasye mayy āsakta-mati-mātra vyākhyāta-lakṣaṇe svopasye saḥ. Now in the beginning, the Lord says that "This system of yoga can be practiced by persons who have developed attachment for Me." This attachment I have described for the last three, four days in a different way. So this yoga system cannot be practiced by an ordinary man who has no attachment for Kṛṣṇa. This is different system. And the topmost.
Tvam anyo vā tadṛṣo mad-āśrayo mad-dāsya-sakhyādy-ekatamena bhāvena. What is that āsakti? There are five kinds of direct āsakti. Āsakti means attachment. And there are seven kinds of indirect attachment. Indirect attachment is not bhakti, but direct attachment is called bhakti. If you are attached with Kṛṣṇa by the direct method, it is called devotional service. And if you are attached to Kṛṣṇa by indirect method, then it is not devotional service. But that is also attachment.
Just like Kaṁsa. Kaṁsa was the maternal uncle of Kṛṣṇa, and there was a foretelling that Kaṁsa would be killed by his sister's son, eighth son of his sister. So Kaṁsa became very anxious, and he wanted to kill his younger sister, Devakī, Kṛṣṇa's mother. So she was saved by her husband, Kṛṣṇa's father, Vasudeva, by some compromise. The last compromise was... That's a great long story.
The last compromise was that he informed his brother-in-law Kaṁsa that "You are afraid of the son of your sister. So your sister is not going to kill you. So I request, don't kill your sister. Save her. And I promise that all the sons born of your sister will be brought to you, and if you like, you can kill." The compromise was made by Vasudeva. He was also a king.
So politically, that "For the time being this poor girl may be saved, and it may be that time will change the mind of Kaṁsa. When her sons will be born he might change his mind." But he was such a great demon that he killed all the sons of Devakī. So the eighth son... It was foretold that the eighth son of his sister would kill him.
So when Kṛṣṇa was in the womb of his mother, Kaṁsa was always thinking of Kṛṣṇa. Now you see, he was also Kṛṣṇa conscious, but he was Kṛṣṇa conscious not directly, not for love's sake, but as an enemy. He was Kṛṣṇa conscious as enemy. So that is not devotional service. One who is Kṛṣṇa conscious and Kṛṣṇa's friend, Kṛṣṇa's parent, Kṛṣṇa's servant, Kṛṣṇa's lover, that is devotion.
So here it is clearly said, mayy..., mad-āśrayaḥ. Mad-āśrayaḥ means he..., one who wants Kṛṣṇa. You may want Kṛṣṇa as your lover. You may want Kṛṣṇa as your son. You may want Kṛṣṇa as your friend. You may want Kṛṣṇa as your master. You may want Kṛṣṇa as the supreme sublime. These five different kinds of direct relationship with Kṛṣṇa is called devotion, bhakti: without any material profit.
Now the concept of accepting God as son is superior than the concept of accepting God as father. There is distinction. The relationship between father and son is that the son wants to take something from the father. But the father's relationship with the son is that father always wants to give something to the son.
Therefore the relationship with God or Kṛṣṇa as father is better than relationship with Kṛṣṇa... Just like if I accept God as my father, then I am the son. Then my business will be to ask only for my necessities from the father. That is my business. But if I become father of Kṛṣṇa, then from the beginning of His childhood, my business will be to serve Kṛṣṇa.
The father, the parents, they serve the child from the beginning of his birth. Therefore this concept of Nanda-Yaśodā or Devakī and Vasudeva is very sublime. They... Kṛṣṇa... Yaśodā, mother, she is thinking that "If I do not feed Kṛṣṇa sumptuously, He will die."
She is thinking that Kṛṣṇa... She forgets that Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord, is subsisting the three world, everywhere.
nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām
eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān
[Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13]
[The Supreme Lord is eternal and the living beings are eternal. The Supreme Lord is cognizant and the living beings are cognizant. The difference is that the Supreme Lord is supplying all the necessities of life for the many other living entities.]
That only one God is supplying the necessities of all other living entities. Now this, that same, very same Personality of Godhead, has become the son of Yaśodā, and she is thinking that "If I do not feed Kṛṣṇa nicely, He will die." This is love. This is love. She has forgotten that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has taken..., has appeared before him [her] as his little child, as her little child. But she forgets.
So this relationship of āsakti, of attachment, is very sublime. It is very sublime. It requires time to understand, but there is such position, that instead of asking God, "O God, give me our daily bread, give us our daily bread," you can think that God will die if you do not supply Him bread. God will die if you do not supply. And this is the ecstasy of extreme love. So there is such relationship with Kṛṣṇa and His devotees. Rādhārāṇī, the greatest devotee, the greatest lover of Kṛṣṇa.
[break] Nanda-Yaśodā, the lover as parent. Sudāmā, a friend, lover as friend. Arjuna, as lover as friend. Similarly, there are millions and trillions of different kinds of devotees of Kṛṣṇa. They are directly playing.
So this yoga system, as described herein, bhakti-yoga, it can be practiced by such persons who have developed such attachment for Kṛṣṇa. Others cannot. And if anyone is able to develop such attachment, then the result will be that he will understand God, or Kṛṣṇa, perfectly.
However we may try to understand what is God by our different theories or speculation, it is a very difficult job to understand what is God. We may say that I have..., we have understood what is God, but it is not possible to understand God as He is, because we have got our limited senses and He is unlimited. How you can capture the Unlimited with your limited sense? But it is not possible.
It is said in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.136].
[”’Therefore material senses cannot appreciate Kṛṣṇa’s holy name, form, qualities and pastimes. When a conditioned soul is awakened to Kṛṣṇa consciousness and renders service by using his tongue to chant the Lord’s holy name and taste the remnants of the Lord’s food, the tongue is purified, and one gradually comes to understand who Kṛṣṇa really is.’]
Our senses are imperfect always. Even we cannot understand perfectly the material world. Just like we have seen so many planets and stars in the sky at night, but we do not know what they are. We do not know even what is this moon planet. We are trying for so many years, trying to go there in sputnik and... Even one planet. Even we do not know what varieties are there even in this planet. If you go on the sea, if you go on the sky, you are perfectly illusioned.
So our knowledge is always imperfect. That we must admit. If foolishly, if we think we have acquired all sorts of knowledge, we have advanced in science, this is another foolishness. It is not possible. So when it is not possible to understand even the material things which we are daily seeing with our eyes and perception, what to speak of spiritual? And the Kṛṣṇa, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He is the Supreme spiritual form. So it is not possible for us to understand Kṛṣṇa by our limited senses.
Then why we are bothering so much for Kṛṣṇa consciousness if it is not possible? The answer is ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ. These imperfect senses cannot realize Kṛṣṇa as He is. Then the process is sevonmukhe hi jihvādau. If you become submissive, if you develop the spirit of service to Kṛṣṇa—either as servant or as friend or as parent or as lover, if you begin to give service to the Supreme Lord... The beginning of service is chanting. Therefore it is said, jihvādau. Jihvādau means..., jihva means tongue. Tongue. Your service begins by the tongue. How? By the tongue you can chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, and by the tongue you can taste Kṛṣṇa's prasādam.
So the beginning process is very nice. You chant Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, and whatever little prasādam is offered to you by Kṛṣṇa by His kindness, you accept it. Then the result will be that sevonmukhe hi jihvādau. If you become submissive and if you begin this service, chanting and eating prasādam, then svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ, simply by these two kinds of practices, Kṛṣṇa will Himself reveal Himself before you: "I am like this." You cannot understand Kṛṣṇa by speculation. No. That is not possible, because your senses are imperfect. But if you begin this process of service, then it will be possible that one day Kṛṣṇa will reveal to you, "I am like this."
Just like Kṛṣṇa is revealing in the Bhagavad-gītā to Arjuna. Arjuna is a devotee, and he is submissive. And he is friend also. He is in contact with Kṛṣṇa as friend. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is revealing to Kṛṣṇa..., ah, to Arjuna. This Bhagavad-gītā is spoken to Arjuna, not to any Vedāntist or speculationist.
In the beginning of the Fourth Chapter, you know that Kṛṣṇa says that "I'll speak to you that old system of yoga, bhakti-yoga," in the beginning of the Fourth Chapter, "unto you." Why? Kṛṣṇa was not a Vedāntist... Ah, Arjuna was not a Vedāntist or a great philosopher or a brāhmaṇa or nothing. He was a kṣatriya. He was a fighter and a householder, not even a sannyāsī. So these are not qualifications to understand Kṛṣṇa.
Suppose... Just like I have become a sannyāsī, mendicant. This is not qualification that I can understand Kṛṣṇa. Even in your white dress, as gṛhastha, you can understand better than me. Then what is the qualification? This qualification: sevonmukhe hi jihvādau [Brs. 1.2.234].
[No one can understand the transcendental nature of the name, form, quality and pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa through his materially contaminated senses. Only when one becomes spiritually saturated by transcendental service to the Lord are the transcendental name, form, quality and pastimes of the Lord revealed to him.]
One who has developed the service spirit with love and devotion, he can understand Kṛṣṇa. Nobody else. Nobody... Not Dr. Radhakrishnan or similar person. No. But a child can understand Kṛṣṇa if he has full faith in Him.
So it is the faith and devotion that makes one qualified to understand God. Mad-āśrayaḥ. This is called mad-āśrayaḥ. Now by simply that faith and service, you'll understand that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Now just like we are preaching Kṛṣṇa consciousness. We are not wasting your time or our time without having full faith that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, theoretically or practically. Theoretically, if you take that "How Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead?" theoretically, from the revealed scripture, we understand from the Vedic literature that great authorities in the past and in the present.
Take for the present Lord Caitanya. Lord Caitanya is a great authority, recognized, great authority. Oh, He is mad after Kṛṣṇa. He is mad after Kṛṣṇa. Then after Him, His six disciples, Gosvāmīs, the Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī, they have written immense literature, valuable literatures—especially Jīva Gosvāmī—volumes of literature on Kṛṣṇa. So... Then, under disciplic succession also, we have come to this point, and if you take past history, bygone, long, long ago, Vyāsadeva, who is known as Vedavyāsa, he has written book, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, on Kṛṣṇa.
Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is nothing but description of Kṛṣṇa. Vyāsadeva is also writer of Bhagavad-gītā. The Bhagavad-gītā was spoken by Kṛṣṇa and noted down by Vyāsadeva. And he has put this Bhagavad-gītā in the Mahābhārata. So Vyāsadeva accepts Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality. He has, in the Bhāgavatam, he has specifically mentioned, kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam. He has given description of different other incarnations of God. There are about twenty-five incarnations. In the conclusion he said that,
ete cāṁśa-kalāḥ puṁsaḥ
kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam
[All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the original Personality of Godhead. All of them appear on planets whenever there is a disturbance created by the atheists. The Lord incarnates to protect the theists.]
That "All the descriptions that are given of different incarnations, they are partially or part of the partial representation of God. But this Kṛṣṇa whom I have mentioned, He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself." He is not part. Cent per cent. Cent per cent God.
So there is evidence of authority. And practically, if we believe the śāstras, the scriptures, authorities, then see who can be more powerful than Kṛṣṇa, who can be more beautiful than Kṛṣṇa, who can be more famous than Kṛṣṇa. Just like Kṛṣṇa appeared five thousand years before, but His knowledge, which He gave us in the shape of Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, still it is worshiped. It is worshiped not only by the Hindus or the Indians, but this Bhagavad-gītā is read all over the world.
In your country there are at least fifty kinds of different editions of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [Bhagavad-gītā] written by different American thoughtful men. Similarly you'll find in England, in Germany, in France, in, I mean to say, all other countries you'll find hundreds of editions of Bhagavad-gītā. Just see, who can be more famous and who can be more wise than Kṛṣṇa? There are many other evidences if we believe śāstra—that Kṛṣṇa married 16,108 wives, and He provided each one of them with big palaces, and each one of them had ten children, and from ten children there were many other children also.
So these are the evidences from revealed scripture. And in the Brahma-saṁhitā also, Kṛṣṇa is accepted as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is a very old book, supposed to be written by Brahmā. It is called Brahma-saṁhitā. In that Brahma-saṁhitā it is said that īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. Īśvaraḥ means God.
[Kṛṣṇa who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes.]
There are many gods, but... In Sanskrit language, about God, there are many demigods, and there is Supreme God. So this Brahma-saṁhitā says, īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ, "Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme God. He is the God of gods." Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ. "And His body is eternal, and full of bliss and knowledge." This is the description of the body.
Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. Anādi, "He has no beginning, but He is the beginning of everyone." Anādir ādir govindaḥ. "And His name is Govinda." Go means senses and go means cow and go means land. So He is the proprietor of all land, He is the proprietor of all cows, and He is the, I mean to say, pleasure for all senses.
We are after sense pleasure, but our perfection of sense pleasure can be achieved when we reciprocate our pleasure with Kṛṣṇa. Therefore His name is Govinda. Govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi **. Govinda is the Supreme original Personality of Godhead.
So the same Personality of Godhead, He is speaking to Arjuna personally about Himself. Then how you can say that somebody, by simply by speculation, speaks something about God which is more important than what is being spoken by Kṛṣṇa Himself? It is not possible. Nobody can speak better than Kṛṣṇa about God, because God Himself is speaking about Himself. If you speak about yourself personally, who can speak more than you? So if we have faith, if we believe theoretically and practically Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then by the speeches which is being delivered by Kṛṣṇa in this chapter, you can understand God. There is no difficulty.
Mat-parataṁ yanis cayāvanityārthaḥ, samagraṁ sādhiṣṭhānaṁ sāvibhūtiṁ sāparikaram. And if you believe Kṛṣṇa, then the result will be that you can understand God, how He is working, how His energies are acting, how He is manifested, what is this material world, what is the spiritual world, what are these living creatures, what is their relationship—so many things in God's creation.
The whole Vedic literature are dealing in three things. First thing is that what is your relationship with God. Then the next step is that as soon as we understand our relationship with God, then we can act in that way. Just like a man and woman: they are not known to each other, but as soon as the relationship is established that one is husband and the other is wife, then the reciprocal dealing begins.
So unless you understand what is your relationship with God... Generally, people believe that God is the father. Therefore son's business is to ask from father whatever we need. But that is very minor relationship. If you understand God perfectly well... And there is intricate relationship also. That relationship will be revealed when you are perfectly liberated.
Each and every living creature has got a particular relationship with God. We have forgotten that. So when that relationship will be revealed in the process of devotional activities, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, you should know that is the perfection of your life. That is the perfection of our life.
So Kṛṣṇa consciousness is a great science. It is not a sentiment or mental speculation or bluff. It is based on scientific proposition, as described in the Bhagavad-gītā, as described in the Vedas, as described in the Saṁhitās, as accepted by the authorities like Lord Caitanya, Rāmānujācārya, Madhvācārya, Nārada, Asita, Vyāsa. There are so many authorities. So Kṛṣṇa consciousness is not an ordinary, bluff-making or a money-making business. It is something reality. And if you take to it seriously, your life will be successful.
Thank you very much. Any questions?
Girl: If you want, if you want to go to other... [rattling sound] ...if you want to encourage us to enter into spiritual knowledge in the material world, is it necessary to live in a place that's free of grief... [rattling sound] ...or just to change?
Prabhupāda: If you want to transfer yourself to other planets, yes. Kṛṣṇa consciousness means transferring yourself to other planets. The ultimate perfection or success is go back to Godhead, back to home. So when Kṛṣṇa consciousness will be perfect, you'll be transferred from this planet, or from this material world, to the spiritual world, and you'll talk with Kṛṣṇa just you are talking with me.
Devotee (1): Swāmījī, I think she means that do you have to do any kind of breathing exercising besides chanting?
Prabhupāda: No. There is no breathing exercise or gymnastic. No. Nothing. The breathing exercise is there. When you chant Hare Kṛṣṇa there is breathing. There is nice breathing. Yes?
Devotee (2): Swāmījī, is there higher devotional service than chanting?
Prabhupāda: Higher devotional service... What do you mean by higher devotional service? Huh?
Devotee (2): Would serving your spiritual master be higher than even chanting, serving Kṛṣṇa more than...
Prabhupāda: Higher devotional service means first of all you have to understand... Just now I explained that you have to understand your relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Then your service begins. So as soon as you are in eternal relationship with Kṛṣṇa, that is higher... [end]