Prabhupāda: ...herein the explanation of Vedānta-sūtra from Caitanya Mahāprabhu [to] the Māyāvādī sannyāsī of Benares. There are two kinds of Māyāvādī. The word Māyāvādī is very significant. I saw yesterday in your iṣṭagoṣṭhī you have tried to understand what is this Māyāvāda. Māyāvādī means materialist.

Māyā: this matter, the external energy, the inferior energy; and those who want to stick to this inferior energy, never mind what class of philosopher, what section of philosopher they belong, if their idea is only within the boundary of this material energy, they are called Māyāvādī. They have no information of the spiritual energy. They are called Māyāvādī.

So chiefly the impersonalist and the void philosophers, they are called Māyāvādī, because they have no other information. They want to simply negate, nullify, but they have no positive information, they are called Māyāvādī. So the Śaṅkarites... Śaṅkarites, of course, they give positive information: brahma satya jagan mithyā. They say that this world is false and Brahman is reality.

But because we want reality in variety, therefore impersonal philosophy, although we take it as a matter of sectarian philosophy, it does not appeal to the heart, because by nature we want enjoyment. And whenever there is question of enjoyment, there must be variety. Variety is the mother of enjoyment.

So philosophically or theoretically, we may accept voidness, negation, out of frustration. When we are frustrated in these material varieties we adopt the suicidal policy, "Let me commit suicide, finish." This is called Māyāvāda. Actual spiritual variegatedness, unless one is informed about it and one is situated in spiritual varieties, there is no satisfaction.

So the Māyāvādī philosophers of Benares, after hearing the explanation of Vedānta-sūtra from Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they were very much satisfied.

Sei haite sannyāsīra phiri gela mana

[Cc. Ādi 7.149].

[From that moment when the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs heard the explanation of the Vedānta-sūtra from the Lord, their minds changed, and on the instruction of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they too chanted ”Kṛṣṇa! Kṛṣṇa!” always.]

Their mind turned. "Oh, this is the real explanation." 'Kṛṣṇa' 'kṛṣṇa' nāma sadā karaye grahaṇa. Now they also began to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare / Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.

eimate tāṅ-sabāra kṣami' aparādha
sabākāre kṛṣṇa-nāma karilā prasāda

[Cc. Ādi 7.150]

[Thus Lord Caitanya excused all the offenses of the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs and very mercifully blessed them with kṛṣṇa-nāma.]

Caitanya Mahāprabhu excused all these offenders. Anyone who is godless, he is offender. So when they chanted "Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa" and accepted the Vedānta philosophy according to the explanation of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, He excused them. That is the significance of Lord Caitanya. He is very merciful. He excuses. Without excuse, how He can deliver the fallen souls of this age?

Their condition is very precarious. Their duration of life is very small, and they are not very intelligent—very slow to understand their importance of spiritual life. And even they are little advanced, they are under the clutches of so many so-called bogus societies. So therefore their condition is very precarious and... So there is no other alternative than to excuse them. Caitanya Mahāprabhu excused them.

tabe saba sannyāsī mahāprabhuke laiyā
bhikṣā karilena sabhe, madhye vasāiyā

[Cc. Ādi 7.151]

[After this, all the sannyāsīs took the Lord into their midst, and thus they all took their meal together.]

Then all the sannyāsins, placing Caitanya Mahāprabhu in the middle... According to Indian system of dining—you are accustomed—they sit in a line. And Caitanya Mahāprabhu was requested to sit in the middle, and thus they took prasādam.

tabe saba sannyāsī mahāprabhuke laiyā
bhikṣā karilena sabhe, madhye vasāiyā

[Cc. Ādi 7.151]

bhikṣā kari' mahāprabhu āilā vāsāghara
hena citra-līlā kare gaurāṅga-sundara

[Cc. Ādi 7.152]

[After taking lunch among the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who is known as Gaurasundara, returned to His residence. Thus the Lord performs His wonderful pastimes.]

So after taking prasādam, He came back to His place. And for Him it was a great victory that He conquered the mind of the Māyāvādī sannyāsin by explanation of Vedānta-sūtra. So His, I mean to say, friend, Candraśekhara..., Candraśekhara and Tapana Miśra and Sanātana Gosvāmī, they were very much pleased.

Caitanya Mahāprabhu had only three or four followers at Benares. Of course, when He was on the street, hundreds and thousands of people gathered round Him. But actually, in His residence there were three, four followers only: Tapana Miśra, Candraśekhara Ācārya, Sanātana Gosvāmī and one Maharastrian brāhmaṇa. They were very much pleased, naturally. Their Lord was victorious in that great assembly of sannyāsī, and naturally, they were very much pleased.

prabhuke dekhite āise sakala sannyāsī
prabhura praśaṁsā kare saba vārāṇasī

[Cc. Ādi 7.154]

[Many Māyāvādī sannyāsīs of Vārāṇasī came to see the Lord after this incident, and the entire city praised Him.]

Naturally, He attracted the attention of many other sannyāsī, and they began to come and see Him and offer their respect. And throughout the whole city of Benares His name was immediately advertised: "Oh, such a great sannyāsī has come. He has explained Vedānta-sūtra in a different way, which has captured the mind of all other Māyāvādī sannyāsī."

So because Benares is a city of pilgrimage, it is not ordinary city. Mostly the person who reside in Benares, they are retired life for cultivating spiritual consciousness, but they are almost cent percent impersonalist. Prabhura praśaṁsā kare saba vārāṇasī

vārāṇaṣi-purī āilā śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya
purī-saha sarva-loka haila mahā-dhanya

[Cc. Ādi 7.155]

[Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the city of Vārāṇasī, and all of its people were very thankful.]

So Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited this city of Māyāvādī sannyāsī. By His mercy all of them became glorified.

lakṣa lakṣa loka āise prabhuke dekhite
mahā-bhiḍa haila dvāre, nāre praveśite

[Cc. Ādi 7.156]

[The crowd at the door of His residence was so great that it numbered hundreds of thousands.]

So many thousands of people gathered before His house, and they wanted to see Him, but due to the crowd, some of them could not enter into the house.


prabhu yabe yā'na viśveśvara-daraśane
lakṣa lakṣa loka āsi' mile sei sthāne

[Cc. Ādi 7.157]

[When the Lord went to visit the temple of Viśveśvara, hundreds of thousands of people assembled to see Him.]

But Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to go to the temple of Viśveśvara. At Benares, the most famous temple is Viśveśvara, Lord Śiva's temple. Because this place, Benares, is the place of Lord Śiva. Just like Vṛndāvana is the place of Lord Kṛṣṇa, Ayodhyā is the place of Lord Rāma, so there are different places in India. So Benares is the place of Lord Śiva, and he's known there as Viśveśvara.

It is very old city, it is..., it is..., Kāśī—the real name is Kāśī—and it is coming from the Satya-yuga. It is not new city. It is very old city. Satya-yuga. Mahārāja Hariścandra, he was the king of this, and Hariścandra happens to be previous to Lord Rāmacandra. So it is very old city. So viśveśvara sthāne.

snāna karite yabe yā'na gaṅgā-tīre
tāhāṣi sakala loka haya mahā-bhiḍe

[Cc. Ādi 7.158]

[Whenever Lord Caitanya went to the banks of the Ganges to take His bath, big crowds of many hundreds of thousands of people assembled there.]

So when Caitanya Mahāprabhu goes to the Ganges to take His bath, and after taking bath He used to visit the temple of Viśveśvara in the morning, so at that time hundreds of people gathered round Him.

bāhu tuli' prabhu bale—bala hari hari
hari-dhvani kare loka svarga-martya bhari'

[Cc. Ādi 7.159]

[Whenever the crowds were too great, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stood up, raised His hands and chanted, ”Hari! Hari!” to which all the people responded, filling both the land and sky with the vibration.]

So Caitanya Mahāprabhu's special feature, as you see in the picture, He would simply raise His hands and ask anybody to chant "Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa." And people will..., in the crowd, they will also respond to Lord Caitanya. So in this way, at Benares He was enjoying.

bāhu tuli' prabhu bale—bala hari hari
hari-dhvāṇī kare loka svarga-martya bhari'

[Cc. Ādi 7.159]

And the sound of "Hare Kṛṣṇa, Haribol," that become... According... There are two slogans. One Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, and another, short, is Haribol, Haribol. You can practice also that. Haribol.

Devotee: Haribol.

Prabhupāda: Yes. Haribol. That is a shortcut of Hare Kṛṣṇa. Yes. Haribol. Haribol means "the sound of Hari, or the Lord." Haribol. So whenever there was some greeting, Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to answer, raising His hand, "Haribol."

bāhu tuli' prabhu bale—bala hari hari
hari-dhvāṇī kare loka svarga-martya bhari'

[Cc. Ādi 7.159]

[Whenever the crowds were too great, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stood up, raised His hands and chanted, ”Hari! Hari!” to which all the people responded, filling both the land and sky with the vibration.]

loka nistāriyā prabhura calite haila mana
vṛndāvane pāṭhāilā śrī-sanātana

[Cc. Ādi 7.160]

[After thus delivering the people in general, the Lord desired to leave Vārāṇasī. After instructing Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī, He sent him toward Vṛndāvana.]

Now, and at this time Sanātana Gosvāmī arrived to see Caitanya Mahāprabhu after retirement from his government service. So He taught him for two months about the science of devotion and the principles of devotion. We have discussed to a certain extent, and we shall again discuss.

Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught personally Sanātana Gosvāmī what is Kṛṣṇa—what is Kṛṣṇa, what is Kṛṣṇa consciousness, what is the position of the living entity, what is this world. All these things He has very nicely taught Sanātana Gosvāmī. And Sanātana Gosvāmī and Rūpa Gosvāmī, these two brothers are authorities of the disciplic succession of Caitanya Mahāprabhu.


loka nistāriyā prabhura calite haila mana
vṛndāvane pāṭhāilā śrī-sanātana

[Cc. Ādi 7.160]

[After thus delivering the people in general, the Lord desired to leave Vārāṇasī. After instructing Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī, He sent him toward Vṛndāvana.]

Now, after teaching Sanātana Gosvāmī, He asked him that "You go to Vṛndāvana." Because He was returning to Jagannath Purī. Caitanya Mahāprabhu authorized... You have seen the picture of Vṛndāvana in that catalogue? What is that book you have brought from library? No. That's all right. Oh, you have forgotten your book? Library book? Huh?

Devotee: [indistinct]

Prabhupāda: No, who brought that book it is lying in my room, apartment? Anyway, there is a picture of Vṛndāvana. That picture, there is a temple. This temple was first constructed by Sanātana Gosvāmī. That is the oldest temple in Vṛndāvana, not less than five hundred years old. And it was desecrated by the Aurangzeb, Emperor Aurangzeb. Then another new temple is now constructed where Madana-mohana is residing. So Caitanya Mahāprabhu authorized Sanātana Gosvāmī to go to Vṛndāvana and excavate the city.

Before Lord Caitanya, the places of pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa was forgotten. People knew only that "In these quarters Kṛṣṇa was born and His pastimes was played here," but no particular places were excavated. But Caitanya Mahāprabhu...

After Caitanya Mahāprabhu sent Sanātana Gosvāmī, the importance of that tract of land known as Mathurā-Vṛndāvana became very important. And the importance of that city is due to this Sanātana Gosvāmī, because Sanātana Gosvāmī was authorized to go there and establish temple. So after Sanātana Gosvāmī and Rūpa Gosvāmī, hundreds and thousands of temples were constructed, and there are at least five thousand temples now, after Sanātana Gosvāmī.

rātri-divase lokera śuni' kolāhala
vārāṇasī chāḍi' prabhu āilā nīlācala

[Cc. Ādi 7.161]

[Because the city of Vārāṇasī was always full of tumultuous crowds, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, after sending Sanātana to Vṛndāvana, returned to Jagannātha Purī.]

At Benares He was overcrowded with persons. Always there was tumultuous sound, "Hare Kṛṣṇa." And Caitanya Mahāprabhu left Benares and came back to Jagannath Purī. Jagannath Purī and Benares is not less than about eight hundred miles' distance. So in those days there was no railway, no other conveyance. Caitanya Mahāprabhu had to travel through the jungles, and He came back to Jagannath Purī.

ei līlā kahiba āge vistāra kariyā
saṅkṣepe kahilāṅ ihāṅ prasaṅga pāiyā

[Cc. Ādi 7.162]

[I have here given a brief account of these pastimes of Lord Caitanya, but later I shall describe them in an extensive way.]

So Caitanya Mahāprabhu thus came back, and the author says that after this incident we shall discuss in another chapter about the activities of Lord Caitanya, and so far His Benares visit was concerned, this is the end.

ei paṣcatattva-rūpe śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya
kṛṣṇa-nāma-prema diyā viśva kailā dhanya

[Cc. Ādi 7.163]

[Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His associates of the Paṣca-tattva distributed the holy name of the Lord to invoke love of Godhead throughout the universe, and thus the entire universe was thankful.]

In this way, Paṣcatattva, these five pictures you have seen: śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu nityānanda śrī-advaita gadādhara śrīvāsadi-gaura-bhakta-vṛnda, they inaugurated this movement of Kṛṣṇa consciousness five hundred years before, and it is predicted here that this movement will sanctify the situation of the whole world.

ei paṣcatattva śrī-kṛṣṇa...
kṛṣṇa-nāma-prema diyā viśva kailā dhanya

[Cc. Ādi 7.163]

He has already impregnated the seed. Just like Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda: in 1896 he sent the Caitanya Mahāprabhu's message to McGill University. That book you have seen. The letter was there. And these are coincidence. Now, after so many years, a servant of that disciplic succession has come here again to preach.

So these things are significant. Caitanya Mahāprabhu practically sown the seed of this Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and it is spreading, and it is sure it will spread. Now it has come to your country, and I am sure the students who are taking very seriously about this movement, they will spread in the Western world.

So, mathurāte pāṭhāila rūpa-sanātana. Now this is incidental, that Caitanya Mahāprabhu sent Sanātana Gosvāmī to Vṛndāvana, and other Gosvāmī, Rūpa Gosvāmī...

mathurāte pāṭhāila rūpa-sanātana
dui senā-pati kaila bhakti pracāraṇa

[Cc. Ādi 7.164]

[Lord Caitanya dispatched the two generals Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī to Vṛndāvana to preach the bhakti cult.]

Senā-pati means these two brothers, Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī, were appointed as the commander-in-chief, commander-in-chief in this fighting with māyā. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness means it is declaration of fighting with māyā. Māyā is killing all the poor conditioned souls, and Caitanya Mahāprabhu declared war against māyā by spreading Kṛṣṇa consciousness. And the commander-in-chiefs are Rūpa-Sanātana. In other words, if anyone wants to be expert in Kṛṣṇa consciousness to fight with māyā, they must follow the principles of Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī.

There is a very nice song sung by one poet, Vaiṣṇava poet. He's singing like this:

gaurāṅga bolite habe pulaka-śarīra
hari hari bolite nayane ba'be nīra

[Lālasāmayī Prārthanā 1]

[When will that opportune moment come to me when there will be shivering of the body as soon as I chant Lord Gaurāṅga's name? And after the shivering, while chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, when will there be tears pouring down from my eyes?]

He's aspiring that "When I shall loudly call 'Lord Caitanya, Gaurāṅga'?" Gaurāṅga is Lord Caitanya. "And my body will be shivering? And when I shall chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, tears will flow down from my eyes?"

gaurāṅga bolite habe pulaka-śarīra
hari hari bolite nayane ba'be nīra
[Lālasāmayī Prārthanā 1]

Āra kabe nitāi-cānder koruṇā hoibe:

[And when will Nityānanda bestow His causeless mercy upon me so that my desire for material enjoyment will become very insignificant? When will that time come?]

"And when I shall be favored by Nityānanda Prabhu?" Āra kabe nitāi-cānder koruṇā hoibe, saṁsāra-bāsanā mora kabe tuccha ha'be: "When I shall be detached from material enjoyment?"

Viṣaya chāriyā kabe śuddha ha'be mana:

[When my mind is completely purified, being freed from material anxieties and desires, then I shall be able to understand Vṛndāvana and the conjugal love of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, and then my spiritual life will be successful.]

"And when I shall be detached from this material enjoyment, my mind will be purified. My mind will be freed from all contamination of material dirty things." Kabe hāma herabo śrī-vṛndāvana: "And at that time it will be possible to see Vṛndāvana."

Rūpa-raghunātha-pade hoibe ākuti. Now here the author, I mean to..., the singer says that "When I shall be too much devoted. I shall be to much devoted to the principles of Rūpa Gosvāmī so that I'll be able to understand what is the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa?"

In other words, if we want to understand Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and Caitanya philosophy, then we should try to follow the instruction left by Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī. They are the commander-in-chief in this movement.

Nityānanda-gosāṣe pāṭhāilā gauḍa-deśe [Cc. Ādi 7.165].

[As Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī were sent toward Mathurā, so Nityānanda Prabhu was sent to Bengal to preach extensively the cult of Caitanya Mahāprabhu.]

So Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī, they were sent to Vṛndāvana, and Nityānanda Prabhu was sent to Bengal, that "You go and preach there." Teṅho bhakti pracārilā aśeṣa-viśeṣe. And in Bengal this Caitanya philosophy is taught by Nityānanda Prabhu and His disciplic succession.

āpane dakṣiṇa deśa karilā gamana
grāme grāme kailā kṛṣṇa-nāma pracāraṇa

[Cc. Ādi 7.166]

[Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu personally went to South India, and He broadcast the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa in every village and town.]

And He Himself went to the southern part of India, and He preached this Kṛṣṇa consciousness from village to village, town to town.

setubandha paryanta kailā bhaktira pracāra
kṛṣṇa-prema diyā kailā sabāra nistāra

[Cc. Ādi 7.167]

[Thus the Lord went to the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, known as Setubandha [Cape Comorin]. Everywhere He distributed the bhakti cult and love of Kṛṣṇa, and in this way He delivered everyone.]

Setubandha means Cape Comorin. He went up to Cape Comorin, and to northern India, up to Vṛndāvana. I do not know He went to the Punjab side, but up to Vṛndāvana, Delhi, and beginning from Delhi, up to the, practically, the whole length of India He traveled, through Maharashtra and other provinces. Kṛṣṇa-prema diyā kailā sabāra nistāra. So practically the whole of India was surcharged with this Kṛṣṇa consciousness during the starting of this movement in India by Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

ei ta' kahila paṣca-tattvera vyākhyāna
ihāra śravaṇe haya caitanya-tattva-jṣāna

[Cc. Ādi 7.168]

[I have thus explained the truth of the Paṣca-tattva. One who hears this explanation increases in knowledge of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.]

Now the author summarizes that "These are some of the activities of Lord Caitanya, and one who will hear these activities, he will be elevated in Kṛṣṇa consciousness and the philosophy of Caitanya Mahāprabhu."

caitanya, nityānanda, advaita—tina jana
śrīvāsa-gadādhara-ādi yata bhakta-gaṇa

[Cc. Ādi 7.169]

[While chanting the Paṣca-tattva mahā-mantra, one must chant the names of Śrī Caitanya, Nityānanda, Advaita, Gadādhara and Śrīvāsa with their many devotees. This is the process.]

Now the author humbly presents himself that "Lord Caitanya," śrī kṛṣṇa caitanya prabhu..., "these five personalities, I offer my respectful obeisances unto the feet of these five personalities."

Yaiche taiche kahi kichu caitanya...

[Cc. Ādi 7.170]

[I again and again offer obeisances unto the Paṣca-tattva. Thus I think that I will be able to describe something about the pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.]

"Therefore if I have got faith in these five personalities, then it will be possible for me to describe something about Lord Caitanya."

Because he is writing this book, it is description of Lord Caitanya. So he is humbly presenting himself before... This is bhakti-mārga. He is not proud that he is very learned man, he can very nicely comment. No. He is just trying to follow the footprints of his predecessors. This is the way of disciplic succession.

śrī-rūpa-raghunātha-pade yāra āśa
caitanya-caritāmṛta kahe kṛṣṇadāsa

[Cc. Ādi 7.171]

[Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.]

He's summarizing. At the end of each chapter he says, "My respectful obeisances are unto Rūpa Gosvāmī and all other Gosvāmīs, so that I may be able to describe the activities of Caitanya Mahāprabhu."

Thank you very much.

Devotees: Hare Kṛṣṇa. [end]