Prabhupāda: Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, they are now together. Now there will be discussion. Now Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, he [is] asking Caitanya Mahāprabhu, "I think Your name is Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, and You are disciple..., You have accepted this renounced order of life from Keśava Bhāratī."

As I've explained to you that there are ten different names in the Śaṅkara-sampradāya of the sannyāsī, and there are 108 names amongst the Vaiṣṇava sannyāsa. So Caitanya Mahāprabhu, although He was initiated by Vaiṣṇava, He took sannyāsa, He accepted sannyāsa, from Bhāratī, who belongs to the Śaṅkara-sampradāya, Śaṅkara sect.

The rule is that if one has to accept renounced order of life, there is ceremony. As there is ceremony of initiation, there is ceremony of accepting this renounced order of life. And that ceremony must be performed by another bona fide, I mean to..., sannyāsī, renounced order. It is not that you take your cloth and get it colored and one day you become a sannyāsī. No. There are ceremonies.

So Caitanya Mahāprabhu took sannyāsa from Keśava Bhāratī. This Keśava Bhāratī belonged to Śaṅkara-sampradāya. Therefore Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī also belonged to Śaṅkara-sampradāya. So he's asking that "I understand that Your name is Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya."

Now, there are different kinds of names of brahmacārī also under the guidance of a sannyāsī. So the person who is under the guidance of Bhāratī, the brahmacārī's name is Caitanya. So Caitanya Mahāprabhu, although He took sannyāsa, He did not change His brahmacārī name. That is also very significant. Because in the Māyāvādī sannyāsa, as soon as they take sannyāsa, they think that "I have become Nārāyaṇa." So Caitanya Mahāprabhu, although He was regularly a sannyāsī, He did not change His name of brahmacārī. That means brahmacārī is meant for serving the spiritual master, so He continued to be a servitor. That is the significance.

So Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī is asking that "You are a sannyāsī of our sampradāya because You have accepted renounced order from Bharati. So what is the reason that You do not mix with us?" That is his first question. "And another complaint is that You are a sannyāsī. You should devote Your time in discussing philosophy, Sāṅkhya philosophy, and Vedānta-sūtra. You should learn. You should understand why You have taken sannyāsa. And what is this, that You are simply dancing and chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare?" This was his first question. Yes.

And Caitanya Mahāprabhu was simply dancing and chanting. This is the specific contribution of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Because, amongst the Māyāvādī sannyāsī, dancing and chanting is considered to be material. So that is also, they take, it is also one kind of sense gratification. So sannyāsa means they should stop sense gratification. So this is also, according to them, sense gratification, because they took it as ordinary singing.

So Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī asked Caitanya Mahāprabhu, "Why do you follow this sentimentalism, chanting and dancing? You are a... And some of the foolish persons, who have no knowledge, they also follow You. What is this?" Vedānta-paṭhana, dhyāna,—sannyāsīra dharma [Cc. Ādi 7.69]:

[Meditation and the study of Vedānta are the sole duties of a sannyāsī. Why do You abandon these to dance with fanatics?]

"You have taken sannyāsa, renounced order of life. Your duty is to study Vedānta always and meditate." Tāhā chāḍi' kara kene bhāvukera... "And You have given up all these procedure, and You are simply chanting and dancing?"

Prabhāve dekhiye tomā sākṣāt nārāyaṇa

[Cc. Ādi 7.70].

[You look as brilliant as if You were Nārāyaṇa Himself. Will You kindly explain the reason that You have adopted the behavior of lower-class people?]

"So far I see You, from Your bodily features, oh, You appear to be very glorious. You are very intelligent." Because He was boy. Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī was very elderly, and Caitanya Mahāprabhu was only twenty-four years old. So he's appreciating that "From Your face it appears that You are very learned, advanced. And why do You indulge in this sentimentalism?" This is very important question, and answer you should know. This saṅkīrtana movement... Hīnācāra kara kene, ithe ki kāraṇa: "So this is not deserving to a sannyāsī."

prabhu kahe-śuna, śrīpāda, ihāra kāraṇa
guru more mūrkha dehki' karila śāsana

[Cc. Ādi 7.71]

[Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied to Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, ”My dear sir, kindly hear the reason. My spiritual master considered Me a fool, and therefore he chastised Me.]

"Yes. You are right, My dear Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī. You are right. But there is reason why do I do it. Now I can explain to you. When I took sannyāsa from My Guru Mahārāja, from My spiritual master, he found Me a rascal and fool number one, rascal." So guru more mūrkha dekhi' karila śāsana: "So, because he found Me a foolish person, therefore he has chastised Me."

Why? What is that? "He said mūrkha tumi: 'You are foolish. You have no education. You are illiterate.' " Tomāra nāhika vedāntādhikāra [Cc. Ādi 7.72]:

[You are a fool,’ he said. ’You are not qualified to study Vedānta philosophy, and therefore You must always chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. This is the essence of all mantras, or Vedic hymns.]

" 'It is not possible for You to understand Vedānta.' " 'Kṛṣṇa-mantra' japa sadā—ei mantra-sāra: " 'Therefore, You simply chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare. That will make You all right.' "

Now here is the point, that was Caitanya Mahāprabhu a foolish person? No. He was not a foolish person. In His childhood He was known as Nimāi Pandit, the greatest learned man. Even when He was sixteen years old, He defeated another very learned fellow from Kashmir. So He was reputed scholar, and He was known. And Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī knew it that Caitanya Mahāprabhu, even in His gṛhastha āśrama or in His householder life, He was a teacher of nyāya, logic, and He's great learned man. He knew it.

But Caitanya Mahāprabhu says that "My spiritual master found Me a rascal, a fool. Therefore he said that 'You have no chance for understanding Vedānta. Therefore You take to this principle: chant simply Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare.' " What is this purpose of presenting Himself as fool and rascal? The idea is that in this age, 99.9% are fools and rascals; therefore it is very difficult for them to understand what is the purpose of Vedānta. He's representing Himself as one of the fools and rascals.

So Cai..., according to Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the so-called Vedānta societies, the so-called, I mean to say, learned scholars on Vedānta, they are not actually Vedānta scholars; they are all fools and rascals. Because Vedānta-sūtra is very difficult to understand. The compiler, the author of Vedānta-sūtra, is Vyāsadeva. He himself thought it wise that "I must leave one commentation of Vedānta-sūtra. Otherwise, in future, people will misunderstand and misuse Vedānta-sūtra."

In this connection I'll, oh, I may declare herewith that some of you, if you read the Chicago speech by Vivekananda... That was..., he was the first man, he came from India to preach this Hindu philosophy in 1893. Some of you know. So he has got his speech, Chicago speech of Vedānta. You will see, it is simply rascaldom. Simply.

By his speech it is written... If you can secure, you bring it, you will see how rascaldom he was. You'll be surprised. Even a clergyman from this country, oh, he was surprised: "Oh, you come from India and you are decrying God in this way? Oh, I'm surprised." He was..., simply he has decried God: "Oh, why do you care for God? Throw Him, God. You are God." In this way, he has spoken.

So Caitanya Mahāprabhu, five hundred years before, He knew it that in future the all these rascals will misinterpret Vedānta-sūtra. Therefore He presented Himself that "I am fool." Vedānta-sūtra is not a very easy thing. Therefore Vyāsadeva, he explained Vedānta-sūtra in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

The first aphorism of Vedānta-sūtra is janmādy asya yataḥ [SB 1.1.1]. Athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now it is the time for understanding what is Brahman." And the next sūtra is... "What is Brahman?" The next answer is janmādy asya yataḥ: "Brahman is that from whom or from where everything emanates." Now he explains janmādy asya verse:

janmādy asya yataḥ anvayād itarataś ca artheṣu abhijñaḥ svarāṭ
tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ

[SB 1.1.1]

[O my Lord, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I meditate upon Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa because He is the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It is He only who first imparted the Vedic knowledge unto the heart of Brahmājī, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion, as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen in fire, or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of nature, appear factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is eternally existent in the transcendental abode, which is forever free from the illusory representations of the material world. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth.]

In this way, there is lucid explanation of Vedānta-sūtra. Now, if you take Vedānta-sūtra, this janmādy asya aphorism, that Brahman is that Absolute Truth from where everything emanates, or everything is born... Janma means..., janma means born, birth. And sthiti, sthiti means maintenance. Janmādi. Janma, sthiti and pralaya. Pralaya means dissolution.

This material world, it has got a date of its creation. Just like your body, it has got a date of its creation. It stays for some times, and again there is a date of its dissolution. You take the history of everything material, either you take this body, or take this world, or take any empire or any... Just like your American country, oh, it has a date of its beginning. Now it is staying. Now it will be, some day will come, it will..., there will be no more America. You should know it. That means, that is nature's law. Everything. Everything is born, it stays for some time, then it is dissolute, dissolved.

That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā,

bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate

[Bg. 8.19].

[Again and again the day comes, and this host of beings is active; and again the night falls, O Pārtha, and they are helplessly dissolved.]

Bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate. All this thing, whatever material, that manifests, it comes out, it is manifested. It... Just like bubbles in the ocean. There are millions and millions bubbles created one second, and next second it is finished. So janmādy asya yataḥ. But this is the manifestation of material creation. Behind this, the, this spirit is there. Therefore that spirit is Brahman. In this way...

Now, what is the nature of that Brahman? Is it impersonal or personal? Now, Vyāsadeva says, abhijñaḥ svarāṭ. No. "That Supreme Truth is cognizant. He knows." And Bhagavad-gītā also confirms that

vedāhaṁ samatītāni

[Bg. 7.26].

[O Arjuna, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, I know everything that has happened in the past, all that is happening in the present, and all things that are yet to come. I also know all living entities; but Me no one knows.]

The Lord says, "I know everything. I know." Unless He's cognizant, unless behind this mani..., cosmic manifestation, if there is no brain, if there is no cognizance, how nicely it can be made so regulation, I mean to say, timely, everything is working? The planets are working. Do you think there is no brain behind this? There must be. Therefore Bhāgavata says yes, abhijñaḥ. Abhijñaḥ means He's cognizant; He's not a fool. Therefore He's person. Cognizant is a person.

And it is said, svarāṭ. Then he also educated Brahmā. He also... Because Brahmā is considered to be the first created being in this universe. So Bhāgavata says, tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye. Ādi-kavaye means the first created being, and brahma means this Vedic knowledge. So He impregnated Brahmā with Vedic knowledge. So these are the explanation of Vedānta-sūtra. But there are so many foolish rascals, they are misusing Vedānta-sūtra in a different way.

Therefore Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu very cunningly represented Himself that "I am a fool. I am a rascal. Therefore My Guru Mahārāja, My spiritual master, chastised Me, that 'You rascal, You fool, You cannot understand Vedānta-sūtra. You better take this. That will make You happy.' " Or, in other words, at the present moment, the circumstances are so awkward that it is not possible to understand Vedānta. If you indulge in Vedānta-sūtra, it will be very difficult for you. Therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu's contribution, harer nāma harer nāma harer nāma [Cc. Ādi 17.21]:

[In this Age of Kali there is no other means, no other means, no other means for self-realization than chanting the holy name, chanting the holy name, chanting the holy name of Lord Hari.]

"Just chant Hare Kṛṣṇa." That will make you everything progressive.

Mūrkha tumi, tomāra nāhika vedāntādhikāra

[Cc. Ādi 7.72].

[You are a fool,’ he said. ’You are not qualified to study Vedānta philosophy, and therefore You must always chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. This is the essence of all mantras, or Vedic hymns.]

So Caitanya Mahāprabhu is representing Himself as the chief man of the fools and rascals, and He says that "My Guru Mahārāja, My spiritual master, ordered Me that 'You better chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. That will make You happy and progressive. That will make You one day understand what is Vedānta.' " 'Kṛṣṇa-mantra' haite habe saṁsāra-mocana [Cc. Ādi 7.73].

[Simply by chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa one can obtain freedom from material existence. Indeed, simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra one will be able to see the lotus feet of the Lord.]

Now one may question, "Oh, Vedānta-sūtra, understanding Vedānta-sūtra, one is liberated from this material entanglement? So you are asking me simply to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa? Will that purpose be served?" Oh, His guru said, "Yes, it will be served." He said, kṛṣṇa-mantra haite habe saṁsāra-mocana: "If You go on, continue this Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare / Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare, there will be a day when You come to the perfectional stage. Then You will be liberated." The same result as one gets out of studying Vedānta philosophy or Sāṅkhya philosophy, the same result also you will get by simply by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa-nāma haite pābe kṛṣṇera caraṇa.

"Not only that, the Vedāntists, sometimes they cannot reach up to the Kṛṣṇa planet. But Your advantage will be that You'll not only be liberated, but You will be achieving the highest planet, planetary kingdom, or the kingdom of God, You'll be able to achieve there."

And nāma vinu. Nāma vinu kali-kāle nāhi āra dharma [Cc. Ādi 7.74]. Now Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained that "This Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa is the only universal religious principle in this age." No other religion process will be effective, because people are so many and diverted in different way. This is the common formula and this is the effective formula. So Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, nāma vinu kali-kāle: "Without chanting this Hare Kṛṣṇa, there is no other alternative for self-realization in this age of Kali."

nāma vinu kali-kāle nāhi āra dharma
sarva-mantra-sāra nāma, ei śāstra-marma

[Cc. Ādi 7.74]

[In this Age of Kali there is no religious principle other than the chanting of the holy name, which is the essence of all Vedic hymns. This is the purport of all scriptures.]

Now the essence of all scripture is this Hare Kṛṣṇa. Essence. Sarva-śāstra-marma means essence of all scripture. And sarva-mantra-sāra. And there are different kinds of hymns and mantras, and this is the, I mean to say, topmost part of all mantras. "In this way, My Guru Mahārāja asked Me to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa."

Eta bali' eka śloka śikhāila more

[Cc. Ādi 7.75].

[After describing the potency of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, My spiritual master taught Me another verse, advising Me to always keep it within My throat.]

[break] ...dogmatic or dictator. Because one cannot be a guru, or spiritual master, if he creates something. No. He cannot create. Therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu says to Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī that "My Guru Mahārāja, My spiritual master, has reason." Why? What is that reason? Kaṇṭhe kari' ei śloka kariha vicāre: "My Guru Mahārāja said..., he gave Me one verse from authoritative Vedic literature, and he asked Me that 'You should always keep this verse within Your,' " what is called, " 'throat.' "

That means, keeping in throat means... And what is that? This is a quotation from the Vedic literature, Bṛhad-nāradīya Purāṇa. There are four Vedas, and the, there are supplementary Vedas also. There are eighteen purāṇas. So one of the purāṇas is called Bṛhad-nāradīya Purāṇa. So in that Bṛhad-nāradīya Purāṇa, this quotation is there:

harer nāma harer nāma harer nāma eva kevalam
kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva nāsty eva gatir anyathā

[Cc. Ādi 17.21]

[In this Age of Kali there is no other means, no other means, no other means for self-realization than chanting the holy name, chanting the holy name, chanting the holy name of Lord Hari.]

"In this age of Kali..." Kali means disagreement, quarrel and misunderstanding. This is Kali-yuga, misguiding and, I mean to say, less intelligence, less merciful, living for short period. There are so many disqualification in this age. So therefore, in the Bṛhad-nāradīya Purāṇa it is explicitly stated that,

harer nāma harer nāma harer nāma eva kevalam
kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva nāsty eva gatir anyathā

[Cc. Ādi 17.21]

Kalau means "In this age of Kali there is no other alternative, no other alternative, no other alternative." Thrice. Thrice, when you want to stress upon some point, you say thrice: "Do this. Do this. Do this." Similarly, in the Bṛhad-nāradīya Purāṇa, thrice it has been emphasized that you must take to this harer nāma, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare.

Why I must take it? Now, because there is no other alternative than this for your self-realization. If you at all want to know yourself, if you at all want to become perfect or, if you want, at all, to reach the goal of human life, then you must, you must, you must.

"So My Guru Mahārāja..." Caitanya Mahāprabhu says that "My Guru Mahārāja, My spiritual master, asked Me to 'Keep this verse within Your throat, and You go on chanting, and I bless You that You will be liberated. You'll not only be liberated, but You shall also reach the highest goal, the Kṛṣṇa planet.' "

So we shall explain further tomorrow. Any question? [end]