Prabhupāda: So we have been discussing this verse for the last two days. Tyāgena. Partially I have already explained tyāga, renounce. There is some natural tendency also for renouncing. When one gets to the topmost of material opulence, immediately there is a tendency for renunciation. This hippie movement is like that. They have got a good qualification that they have renounced this materialistic way of life, tyāgena.
The, there are two kinds of tendencies: one is bhoga and one is tyāga. Bhoga means enjoyment, sense enjoyment, and tyāga means to give up this material world. But without guidance, one does not know how to renounce this material world. That is called tyāga.
Bhoga and tyāga, two kinds of tendencies are going on in this material world. First of all they want to enjoy, and when they are frustrated in enjoyment, then there is renouncement. Again when they are tired of renouncement, again enjoyment. Just like the clock pendulum, this side and that side—tock, tock, tock, tock.
Similarly, we are oscillating: sometimes in the platform of enjoyment and sometimes on the platform of renouncement. Two things are there in this material world. The karmīs, they are trying to enjoy this world, whole day and night that expressway, always trucks and cars are going on—sohn-sohn-sohn-sohn. Bhoga, how to enjoy first class. Another, the hippies, they don't want to do anything. Both sides are there in your country, bhoga and tyāga. But in neither of the paths you'll be happy, because that is not your proper position. You cannot enjoy or you cannot renounce.
Actually, the whole thing belongs to Kṛṣṇa. Nothing belongs to anyone. Whatever you have got in possession, that is Kṛṣṇa's property. Īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam [Īśo mantra 1]. Everything. You do..., you try to understand. The trees, the plants, the water, the land—have you produced it? Then how do you claim that it is your land, it is your country, it is your water, it is your tree? That is the wrong position. And similarly, tyāga, renouncement... What can you renounce? What you had? What is the meaning of renouncement? You had nothing.
You came here in this world from the womb of your mother empty-handed, a child. Then you falsely claim: "This is my country, this is my home, this is my wife, this is my children, this is my property, this is my bank balance, this is my skyscraper building..." All these false. Because you did not brought this. You came empty-handed, and when you go, you go empty-handed. The things are there. The bank balance is there. The building is there. You cannot take anything. So what is the meaning of bhoga and tyāga?
There is no meaning. Either now, neither able to enjoy, because it is not your property... If you want to enjoy others' property, then you'll be implicated in criminal offenses. And if you say others' property, "I renounce this bank. I renounce this Bank of America," when did it belong to you, that you are making renouncement? This is all lunacy. Then, what to do?
That is direction given by Kṛṣṇa: sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]. You have created different types of religion on the basis of this bhoga and tyāga. So you give up all them. Then? Mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja: "You surrender unto Me." Because you cannot enjoy nor make any renunciation.
But here it is said tapasā, tyāgena: by renouncing. Renouncing means that you are falsely possessing. So you give it to Kṛṣṇa, the original proprietor. Just like one-hundred-dollars note, a child has taken from the father. The child does not know how to use that hundred dollars note, but he..., he'll not give it to the father. "No, I shall not give it." Father is begging: "Oh, my dear child, you are so nice. [laughter] Kindly give it to me." Actually the note belongs to the father. But because he's child, he's innocent, ignorant, he does not know.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, dadāsi yat kuruṣva mad-arpaṇam [Bg. 9.27]. Dāna, this tyāga, "You renounces this world for Me. You renounce your wealth, your property for Me." The same thing. Everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa. He's not a beggar. But He's patting the child, "Oh, you are very good boy. Kindly give it to Me." That is the way. Kṛṣṇa is so kind. Because... The same example: the child does not know how to utilize that hundred dollars note. He'll simply spoil it. The best thing is to give it over, hand it over to the father. He knows how to use it. It is his property.
Similarly, this tyāgena means to practice to give everything to Kṛṣṇa. Everything. Tyāgena. Śamena damena tyāgena. This is the different steps of elevating yourself to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Tapasā brahmacaryeṇa śamena damena ca, tyāgena satya-śaucābhyām [SB 6.1.13]. Satya means truthfulness. One should know what is truth, ultimate truth, Absolute Truth.
We are concerned with relative truths, but we have to know the Absolute Truth. Just like in the Bhāgavata Vyāsadeva is offering his respect, obeisances, satyaṁ paraṁ dhīmahi [SB 1.1.1]: "I offer my respect to the Supreme Truth, not to the relative truth." We are concerned with relative truth, categorical truth, not the summum bonum.
Śaucābhyām: cleanliness. This is also required. Cleanliness. You should take bath twice, thrice, at least once. That is hygienic. Bāhyābhyantara-śuciḥ. One should be cleansed. Bāhya means externally, and abhyantaram, internally. Externally, you take soap, water, soda and cleanse yourself, body. Take bath, cleanse, keep your clothings very cleansed. Unclean habit will not help you, unclean habit. Cleanliness is godliness.
Truthful. Truthfulness. These are the qualities of brāhmaṇa. Satyaṁ śamo damas titikṣā ārjavam āstikyaṁ jñānaṁ vijñānaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.42]. Those who are brāhmaṇas, they must be qualified with all these symptoms. Satyam. This satyam, truthful. How truthful? You, even before your enemies, you'll disclose everything. Such truthful. That is the instruction of ācāryas. We want to disclose everything, hide. But truthfulness means even to a enemy you should be truthful.
Satyaṁ śamam. This śamam, controlling the mind. Damam, controlling the senses. Satyaṁ samo damaḥ śaucam, cleanliness. Ārjavam, simplicity. No duplicity; simplicity. Ārjavam āstikyam. Faith in Vedas, that is called āstikyam. Just like Bhagavad-gītā, part of Vedas. Here Kṛṣṇa says, "I am the Supreme Lord." So you have to accept Him by faith. This is called āstikyam. Āstikyam, jñānam. Not foolishly, but with knowledge, full knowledge. And vijñānam, practical application in life. Brahma-karma svabhāva-jam. This is the natural symptoms of a brāhmaṇa.
So you are all initiated to become brāhmaṇa. You have become brāhmaṇa. Don't become false brāhmaṇa. Real brāhmaṇa. It is not by birth; it is by education, by practice, by knowledge. So we are offering the sacred thread to the Americans and Europeans in the Western countries, and some of our Indian contemporaries, they are not very happy with my action. They are under contemplation that a brāhmaṇa can be, I mean to say, seen by birthright. No. No. Brāhmaṇa is by qualification. Brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. That is the verdict of Kṛṣṇa.
We are concerned with Kṛṣṇa, not any other else. Kṛṣṇa says, cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13]: "By division of quality and..., guṇa and work, one must have the symptoms, the quality of a brāhmaṇa and work as a brāhmaṇa." Not that... Quality will be tested by work. Suppose if you are engineer; you have got the quality of... But if you sit down at home, what is your value? You must be engaged in some engineer work.
Suppose you are lawyer, and if you don't go to the court and sleep at your home, then what is the worth of your studying law? Therefore guṇa-karma. One should not be simply qualified as engineer or lawyer, but he must work also as engineer, as lawyer. Then he's bona fide. Similarly, unless you work as a brāhmaṇa, so simply saying that "I am a brāhmaṇa," what is the value? Useless. They... Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ. There must be quality and work also.
So here we are qualifying the students to be raised in the brahminical platform, and they're working also as brāhmaṇa. How they are working as brāhmaṇa? Because they're fully engaged in Paraṁ Brahma's service, Kṛṣṇa's service. Therefore they are brāhmaṇa. Brahma jānāti iti brāhmaṇaḥ. Without knowing, nobody can render service. They are not rendering service in the ear. They are serving Kṛṣṇa factually. Here is sitting Kṛṣṇa with Rādhārāṇī. Therefore they're brāhmaṇa by quality and work. Guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13].
So this is paraṁ satyaṁ dhīmahi [SB 1.1.1]. They are worshiping the Supreme Truth, Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is the Absolute Truth.
īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
anādir ādir govindaḥ
Cause of all causes. Relative truth is the effect of the Absolute Truth. But He's Absolute Truth. He's the supreme cause, and everything is effect. Cause of all causes. Sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam. Satya-śaucābhyām and... How these things can be executed? Yamena niyamena vā. Yama-niyama. The practice of yoga is based on this principle of yama-niyama, regulating—controlling, regulating. Regulation cannot be executed without control. Therefore yamena niyamena vā. These are the process.
If you want to elevate... Our topics began: the people are suffering. Although one knows that "This is not good, what I am doing..." He has heard, he has seen also the effect of it... The same example: A man who has stolen some property, he's arrested. And he knew it, that "If I steal, I'll be punished." But he has done it, the same thing. He knew it.
He heard it from the police courts or from the śāstras that stealing is not good. He knew it. He heard it from authorities. Still, he has done it. So Parīkṣit Mahārāja's question is, "What is this atonement?" If he, although knowing and hearing, completely in knowledge, still he's forced to do something, to steal, or to something criminal, what then is the use of putting him into the jail or atonement? He'll come again, and again do the same thing.
Therefore he's saying that actually atonement is knowledge. "Why I am stealing? What is the use?" Vimarśanam, prāyaścittaṁ vimarśanam. Vimarśanam means to be thoughtful. Without being thoughtful, philosopher, how one can understand what is his position? Thoughtful. And that thoughtfulness comprehends so many things. Tapasā.
One has to learn it by tapasya. Just like if one wants to pass M.A. examination, then he has to go school, follow the principle of the schools, college, study, and take some pains. Then gradually he'll come a passed M.A. student. And if he plays all the day on the street, how he can? That is not possible.
Therefore the process is being explained by Śukadeva Gosvāmī: tapasā. First thing is tapasya, austerity. Even it is painful... Austerity's painful. Brahmacarya is painful. Because we want, unrestricted, to do everything. But no. As soon as it is regulated, it appears to be painful. When it is practiced, it is not painful. One brahmacārī in Indian city, in severe cold, he was sleeping in the open air, without any covering. And it was severe cold. But it is practice. During Māgha-melā, many saintly persons come there on the bank of the Gaṅgā, Ganges—this year we had our own camp; we have seen—the whole night they are sitting in the open air, without any covering. So practice.
So practice means if you undergo austerity, tapasya, everything will be practiced. That is a Bengali proverb: śarīre nā mahāśaya[?]. Mahāśaya is a word used in India, a very respectable gentleman, mahāśaya. So this śarīra, this body, is mahāśaya. Ya sa haye sa taicha[?]. Whatever he'll practice, it will be accustomed. So practice. So here this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is bringing them to the practice. Therefore you find so nice boys and girls. They're practiced. As soon as they're neglectful to the practice—falls down. They cannot stay. Immediately goes out. So that is called austerity, tapasya. Practice. Practical life.
So these are the processes.
śamena ca damena ca
yamena niyamena vā
kṣipanty aghaṁ mahad api
Veṇu-gulmam ivānalaḥ. Just like there is a jungle—so many unwanted creepers—so you set fire. Everything will be burned into ashes, and the field will be cleared, cleansed. So it is said, deha-vāg-buddhijaṁ dhīrā dharmajñāḥ śraddhayānvitāḥ. Those who are dhīra... Dhīra and adhīra. Dhīra means sober and adhīra means extravagant. There are two classes of men, dhīra and adhīra. Here Śukadeva Gosvāmī's speaking of the dhīra. Who is dhīra? Dhīra means in spite of provocation, in spite of something present which agitates the mind, one remains, I mean to say, in his position, steady. He's called dhīra.
The dhīra example is given by Kālidāsa Paṇḍita, a great poet in India, Sanskrit poet, long, long ago. He has written one book: Kumāra-sambhava. Kumāra-sambhava. In our college we read that book in Sanskrit class. Kumāra-sambhava. So he has given one example of dhīra about Lord Śiva, Mahādeva. He was meditating, and the demigods, they had a plan, that "The demons are fighting with us. We are being defeated. We want a commander-in-chief who must be born out of the semina of Lord Śiva." But he was in meditation. So how to do it?
So Pārvatī, she was sent. She was young girl. And she was worshiping the genital of Lord Śiva. So a young girl touching the genital, and she's present, but still Lord Śiva was in meditation. So Kālidāsa—here is the example of dhīra. He's called dhīra. In spite of presence of a young girl touching the genital, he's not, I mean to say, disturbed.
Just like Haridāsa Ṭhākura. You have heard the Haridāsa Ṭhākura. He was chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, and somebody wanted to cut down. He was young man. So young prostitute was sent at dead of night. And he..., she proposed... Haridāsa Ṭhākura said, "Yes, it is very nice proposal. Please sit down. Let me finish my chanting, and I shall enjoy." So it became morning. The prostitute became, I mean to say, perturbed. And Haridāsa Ṭhākura replied, "I am very sorry. I could not finish my chanting. Please come this night again."
The first night, second night..., third night the prostitute fell down on his feet and said, "Sir, this was my intention. I was induced to do this act by some man who is your enemy. So kindly excuse me." So Haridāsa Ṭhākura replied, "I knew that. But because you came to me, therefore I allowed you to come here, three days, so that you may be converted to be a devotee. So now take these chanting beads. You sit down, go on chanting. I am leaving this place." Here is another dhīra.
So here it is said, deha-vāg-buddhijaṁ dhīrā dharmajñāḥ. One who has control, deha, the body; vāk, the words; buddhi, intelligence—they are dhīra. So this tridaṇḍī. This tridaṇḍī-sannyāsa means to become dhīra, controlling śarīra; deha, the body; vāk, words; and intelligence. These things should be utilized. How? By dhīra, those who are dhīra. Dharmajña: one who knows actually the principle of religion. Dharmajña. Deha-vāg-buddhijaṁ dhīrā dharmajñāḥ śraddhayānvitāḥ, kṣipanty aghaṁ mahad api.
So because our life is continuously committing sinful activities, from time immemorial... You do not know when it began. Evolution, many births. Therefore this life is meant for rectifying all mistakes that we had committed in our previous lives or in this life. How? By this process: kṣipanty agham. Agham means the resultant action of sinful life. Mahad api. Although it is very great, mahad api, how? Veṇu-gulmam, veṇu-gulmam ivānalaḥ. Just like if you set fire to the unwanted grass and creepers in the field. You set fire, and they will be all burned. Similarly, by this process, tapasā brahmacaryeṇa, you can liquidate all of your sinful activities of life and you become purified.
So the next process, another alternative process, is being suggested by Śukadeva Gosvāmī:
kecit kevalayā bhaktyā
aghaṁ dhunvanti kārtsnyena
nīhāram iva bhāskaraḥ
Kecit, not all. Kecit means somebody. Somebody, not all. Generally, people understand austerity or pious life by this process. What is that? Brahmacarya, śama-dama, yama-niyama, tyāga, renunciation: "Oh, he's very pious man." But another man, kecit... That is also kecit, not all. Kecit means somebody. Kecit kevalayā bhaktyā. Simply by pure devotional service. Simply by pure devotional service, vāsudeva-parāyaṇāḥ, I mean, inclined to Vāsudeva, Kṛṣṇa. Vāsudeva-parāyaṇāḥ. Or somebody simply by becoming Kṛṣṇa conscious, aghaṁ dhunvanti, they kills all resultant action of sinful life. Dhunvanti. Aghaṁ dhunvanti kārtsnyena, wholesale.
How it is? Nīhāram iva bhāskaraḥ. Just like there is fog and, as soon as the sun rises, whole fog gone, finished. Very good example. The fog is dense; you cannot see the next person. It is so dangerous. When there is fog in the ocean, they stop all the ships. I have experience. And the aeroplanes, sometimes they clash; they move very carefully. It is very dangerous, fog. Those who are... But as soon as there is sunrise some way or other, everything finished. Similarly, some way or other, if you take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, all the sinful reaction of your life immediately finished like the fog.
So, but... This process is accepted kecit, somebody, very fortunate. Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore said,
ei rūpe brahmāṇḍa bhramite kona bhāgyavān jīva
guru-kṛṣṇa-kṛpāya pāya bhakti-latā-bīja
[Cc. Madhya 19.151]
The Kṛṣṇa consciousness is not for ordinary person. It is meant for very, very fortunate person. But simply by accepting one thing, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he finishes all business of brahmacarya, tyāga, yama, niyama, śama, dama—everything.
So Śukadeva Gosvāmī is prescribing kecit kevalayā bhaktyā [SB 6.1.15]. Kevala bhaktyā. Kevala-bhakti. There is no mixture. Kevala means only pure devotional service. What is that pure devotional service?
śīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā
No other desire than to please Kṛṣṇa. Not that "I have become a devotee. Now my income will increase," or "I shall be..." That, that will come automatically. You want money to increase your income to become happy. But if you take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, automatically you'll be so happy that you'll neglect to collect money. That will automatically come. There is no need of separate endeavor. Happiness will come. Yaṁ labdhvā.
Just like Dhruva, Dhruva Mahārāja. He was so lamenting. Those who are recording, I mean, transcribing my tapes, how he was lamenting, that "How foolish I was that I took to devotional service with a desire for some material profit." He was so much repentant. So that is..., that is another profit of the devotee. For material profit, somebody goes to somebody—some boss, some rich man, some demigod, some powerful man. But a devotee does not go anywhere. He goes to Kṛṣṇa only, even if he has got material desires. That is the advantage. This advantage: that if you go to Kṛṣṇa for some material advantage even, then day will come, you'll forget that material advantage.
Just like Dhruva Mahārāja, he was repentant, that "I came to Kṛṣṇa for asking some material..." The example is given: Just like one has pleased a very big, rich man, and the rich man said, "All right, you ask me whatever you want. I shall give you." So when he's asked to beg whatever he wants, then if he asks that "Give me some broken rice grains," is that very good proposal? If he's asking that "You can ask anything else from me"—he's a rich man—ask him for millions of dollars or something like that. But instead of..., if you ask, for your foolishness, that "Please give me some broken grains of rice..."
So similarly, to go to Kṛṣṇa and to ask for some material benefit is exactly like this, to go to some rich man and ask from him, "Please give me some broken grains of rice." Why one should ask for material happiness from Kṛṣṇa? Material happiness will roll on his feet: "Please take me. Please take me." These Kṛṣṇa conscious boys and girls, in sixty centers, just see how they are materially opulent. They're living in the best house. They're eating the best food. They're in best consciousness. They have got the best hope. Everything best. Their feature of body is best. What you want material happiness more than this? They have got wife, children, happiness, home—everything—full.
So material happiness is nothing to a Kṛṣṇa conscious person. He gets automatically, by the grace of Kṛṣṇa. There is no need of asking for it. Simply be steady to ask Kṛṣṇa, "Please engage me in Your service." Ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam [Cc. Madhya 19.167]. How Kṛṣṇa will be satisfied—then your satisfaction will automatically come. Don't bother for material happiness.
Thank you very much. [devotees offer obeisances] [break]
Guest: [long question in Hindi]
Prabhupāda: [Hindi] twenty-four hours meditation. [Hindi] [end]