Prabhupāda: [leads singing of Brahma-saṁhitā 5.29–33]

cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa-
lakṣāvṛteṣu surabhīr abhipālayantam
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

[Bs. 5.29]

[I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor who is tending the cows, yielding all desire, in abodes built with spiritual gems, surrounded by millions of purpose trees, always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds of thousands of lakṣmīs or gopīs.]

veṇuṁ kvaṇantam aravinda-dalāyatākṣam-
barhāvataṁsam asitāmbuda-sundarāṅgam
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

[Bs. 5.30]

[I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is adept in playing on His flute, with blooming eyes like lotus petals with head decked with peacock's feather, with the figure of beauty tinged with the hue of blue clouds, and His unique loveliness charming millions of Cupids.]

ratnāṅgadaṁ praṇaya-keli-kalā-vilāsam
śyāmaṁ tri-bhaṅga-lalitaṁ niyata-prakāśaṁ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

[Bs. 5.31]

[I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, round whose neck is swinging a garland of flowers beautified with the moon-locket, whose two hands are adorned with the flute and jeweled ornaments, who always revels in pastimes of love, whose graceful threefold-bending form of Śyāmasundara is eternally manifest.]

aṅgāni yasya sakalendriya-vṛtti-manti
paśyanti pānti kalayanti ciraṁ jaganti
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

[Bs. 5.32]

[I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose transcendental form is full of bliss, truth, substantiality and is thus full of the most dazzling splendor. Each of the limbs of that transcendental figure possesses in Himself, the full-fledged functions of all the organs, and eternally sees, maintains and manifests the infinite universes, both spiritual and mundane.]

cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa-
lakṣāvṛteṣu surabhīr abhipālayantam
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

[Bs. 5.29]

[I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor who is tending the cows, yielding all desire, in abodes built with spiritual gems, surrounded by millions of purpose trees, always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds of thousands of lakṣmīs or gopīs.]

advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam
ādyaṁ purāṇa-puruṣaṁ nava-yauvanaṁ ca
vedeṣu durlabham adurlabham ātma-bhaktau
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

[Bs. 5.33]

[I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is inaccessible to the Vedas, but obtainable by pure unalloyed devotion of the soul, who is without a second, who is not subject to decay, is without a beginning, whose form is endless, who is the beginning, and the eternal puruṣa; yet He is a person possessing the beauty of blooming youth.]

[prema-dhvani] [devotees offer obeisances]

[aside:] Stop. Stop. Hmm. Yes. Thank you.

Pradyumna: Get the book?

Prabhupāda: Hmm? What is that?

Pradyumna: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. [Prabhupāda and devotees repeat] [leads chanting of verse, etc.]

sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo
yato bhaktir adhokṣaje
ahaituky apratihatā
yayātmā suprasīdati

[SB 1.2.6]

Prabhupāda: That's all right. [devotees continue chanting] Hmm. Word meaning.

Pradyumna: saḥ—that; vai—certainly; puṁsām—for mankind; paraḥ—sublime; dharmaḥ—occupation; yataḥ—by which; bhaktiḥ—devotional service; adhokṣaje—unto the Transcendence; ahaitukī—causeless; apratihatā—unbroken; yayā—by which; ātmā—the self; suprasīdati—completely satisfied.

Translation: "The supreme occupation, or dharma, for all humanity is that by which men can attain to loving devotional service unto the transcendent Lord. Such devotional service must be unmotivated and uninterrupted in order to completely satisfy the self."

Prabhupāda: So here the translation, dharma, I have purposefully given, "occupation." Actually dharma is generally translated by the English word "religion." But religion is misunderstood. It is taken as a faith. Faith I may believe, faith, or may not believe. But actually, dharma does not mean. That means occupation, which you cannot change.

Just like a carpenter: he earns his livelihood by his occupation as a carpenter. A lawyer, he lives by his occupation, profession, as lawyer. So, so many things. Occupation you cannot give up. You have learned engineering; you cannot give up engineering. That is your livelihood. You cannot say, "No. Today I am engineer. Tomorrow I shall be sweeper."

Of course, in the material world sometimes it is done so, but spiritual meaning means that the living entity has got a permanent occupation. The other occupational duties, they are temporary, bodily, in relation to body. When we feel "I am this body," then I manufacture some occupation according to the circumstances. But spiritual occupation, that is eternal.

Sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmaḥ. Para means transcendental. We have got some duties—just like we go to evacuate, to pass urine or to take food, take bath. These are the occupations of the body. Similarly, there are occupations of the mind, intelligence. But there is occupation of the soul also. That we do not know.

So the question was that "After departure of Kṛṣṇa from this planet to His abode," dharmaḥ kaṁ śaraṇaṁ gataḥ, "under whom the real occupational duty was entrusted?" Kṛṣṇa also came to give us the real occupational duty—not of the body or the mind. Bodily occupational duty changes, because as soon as the body is changed...

I am now human being, and next time, if I become some animal, so my occupational duty changes. Or if I become demigod, my occupational duty changes. The body is born in India, so one is feeling that "It is my duty to serve my country." Similarly, an Englishman is thinking to serve his country.

But these occupational duties are not para. Para means transcendental, supreme. This is temporary. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]: "This is your real occupation. You have got some bodily occupation, some mental occupation, some intellectual occupation, but you have to give up all these things. Simply surrender unto Me. This is your real occupation." Kṛṣṇa says. And Kṛṣṇa descends to teach us this dharma, or occupational duty.

He has explained karma-yoga, jñāna-yoga, dhyāna-yoga. These are all occupational duties of the body, of the mind, of intelligence. But real occupation... Because soul is eternal. The body is not eternal. Mind also changes according to body, or according to mind the body becomes...

So we are contaminating so many qualities of nature, and we are making our concoction, manufacturing our duty. A drunkard, because he has mixed with the quality of drunkards, he thinks, "Drinking is my duty." When you mix with the hippies, then you become like the hippies: "Oh, it is my duty," unless you cannot stay in the society of the hippies.

So these occupational duties, this is faith. He thinks that "This is my duty." "Oh, as Hindu, I have to do it," "As Christian, I must believe it," "As Muslim, I must do it." But here it is stated, sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje [SB 1.2.6]. Bhakti.

This is real dharma. Except bhakti, they are all pseudo. Therefore in the beginning of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is said, dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ. All so-called cheating, pseudo-religious system is rejected. Dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ. Kaitava means cheating.

Cheating... Just like Śrīdhara Svāmī says, dharma artha kāma mokṣa [SB 4.8.41, Cc. Ādi 1.90], these are gradually progressive life. First of all, dharma. Unless one takes to some religious principle, he's not a human being. Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ [Hitopadeśa].

He's not a human; he's animal. Some sort of religious system the human being must follow. Therefore civilized man, either he's born in Western or Eastern country, he has got some religion. It may be Christian religion or Hindu religion or Muslim religion, Buddha religion. Any civilized man has some religion. That's a fact.

[aside:] Don't sit like that.

So therefore dharma first. That is the beginning of humanity, human civilization. Otherwise animal. The animal, they don't say, "I am Christian," "I am Muhammadan," "I am Buddhist," "I am this." No. He's dog. He's cat. That's all. Finished. But a human being says, "I am... I belong to this religion. I belong to that religion." That is required first.

They are rejecting religion. The churches are vacant. That means they are becoming cats and dogs. That is not improvement. They are thinking that "I am now no more going to temple, no more going to church. I have come something, Communist" or something like that. "We don't care for these.." That means you have got... This is the certificate that you have become animal. The animal never says that "I belong to this dharma or that dharma." No.

Therefore, distinction between animal and human being, that he must have some dharma. Dharma. And on religious principle, artha, economic development. Actually, if people become religious, then the economic development... Economic... You require some money to maintain yourself. So they will never be dishonest. Dishonest.

In India still there are merchants, they would not take profit more than twenty-five percent, highest. There is no question of black market. "Now, I purchased this for one dollar. Oh, I am getting demand. I must charge five hundred times." No. That is irreligious. There are... Everything there is prescribed, that "You cannot take more than this profit." So there was no black market, because people were religious.

Therefore if civilization is based on religious life, it doesn't matter what religion he belongs to, he is elevated. Any religion. And therefore I ask the Christians that "Lord Christ says that 'Thou shall not kill.' Why you are killing?" They give some vague explanation. But actually a real Christian is as good as a real Hindu, as a real Mussulman—if he follows. No religion is bad. We don't say.

But the first-class religion is that... That is explained here: sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje [SB 1.2.6]. Every religion teaches how to love God more or less. Why more or less? That is the only aim: how to learn how to love God. But they are rejecting God, what to speak of love. Rejecting. "What is God, this nonsense? I am God. God is dead. Finished."

So this means at the present moment the whole human society has become animal. That's all. Their behavior is also like animal. Behavior is also like animal. And gradually, in this age people will become more and more animalistic. And they like to become animal. They say that "We are going to nature, to remain naked, without any polished behavior. Lie down... Just like cats and dogs lie down on the street, I'll lie down." They are thinking this is ideal.

So just see that so much expenditure on education, university, father, mother's care, still care, but they are becoming cats and dogs. And they are taking it as advancement. Dharma artha. Artha must be on the basis of dharma. And kāma. Kāma means sense gratification. And last, at last, mokṣa, liberation.

So the whole aim is liberation. We are conditioned by this material nature. We have got this material body. Therefore our aim should be how to become liberated from this contamination, accepting birth after birth, material body. This is the need of human being. The animals cannot know that there is a thing like liberation. They cannot understand. The human being also says that after finishing this body everything is finished. That is liberation. No. This is animalism.

So dharma artha kāma mokṣa. So mokṣa, there are different types of mokṣa, or liberation. The Māyāvāda philosopher, the impersonalist, they think mokṣa means to merge into the effulgence of Kṛṣṇa, brahma-jyotir. That is also accepted, merging. But that kind of mokṣa is not accepted by the Vaiṣṇava, because to merge into the effulgence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead may be liberation from this material world, but that does not mean that is actual liberation.

Just like if you, from darkness of night, if you come to the sunlight, it is light of course, but sunshine or sunlight, if you go up with your aeroplane, "Now I shall live in the sunshine or sunlight and travel for millions of years...," you cannot travel millions of years. One day or three days or four days, then you come back again to this...

If you can approach the sun planet, then there is stay. Otherwise you have to come back. Similarly, those who are taking shelter of the effulgence, which is the bodily rays of Kṛṣṇa, they will have to come back. Many, many big, big sannyāsīs, they have come back again to these material activities.

So mokṣa... Sāyujya. It is called sāyujya-mokṣa, merging. Sāyujya, sārūpya, sālokya, sārṣṭi, sāmīpya—five kinds of liberation. So for the Vaiṣṇavas, this merging liberation is rejected. They accept the other four kinds of..., sārūpya, sālokya, sāmīpya, sārṣṭi. Means to possess equal opulence with God.

As Kṛṣṇa is full in six kinds of opulences, one can become almost as opulent as Kṛṣṇa. Not as Kṛṣṇa; as Viṣṇu. That is called sārṣṭi. One can have equal, exactly the same bodily features as Viṣṇu, four hands. That is called sārūpya. Sālokya, you can live in the same planet where Viṣṇu is living, Nārāyaṇa is living or Kṛṣṇa is living. Sālokya.

So... But a pure devotee does not accept even all these liberation. They don't ask for liberation. Pure devotee is satisfied only with the service of the Lord. That is pure devotion. Because there is no desire. That is explained here.

Ahaituky apratihatā. "Oh, I am engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness because after death I shall go back to home, back to Godhead," of course, that's a fact. But a pure devotee even does not desire that. He says, "Wherever Kṛṣṇa will keep me, I shall remain there. It doesn't matter whether heaven or hell. I don't care for it." Nārāyaṇa-parāḥ sarve na kutaścana bibhyati.

Actually one who is nārāyaṇa-para, pure Kṛṣṇa conscious devotee of the Lord, he's not afraid of going to hell or being promoted to heaven. For him everything is all right.

nārāyaṇa-parāḥ sarve
na kutaścana bibhyati
api tulyārtha-darśinaḥ

[SB 6.17.28]

For heaven or hell, it doesn't matter. That is pure devotion. Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam [Brs. 11.1.11], without any desire. That is also desire, that "I am going back to home, back to Godhead." But that desire is very highly qualified desire. But a pure devotee does not desire even that. Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam [Cc. Madhya 19.167].

They do not desire... What to... They do not desire even to go back to Godhead, and what to desire for being elevated or promoted to the heavenly planet. They simply want, "Let me remain wherever Kṛṣṇa desires. I may be engaged in His service." That is pure devotee. That's all.

Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁ jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam [Cc. Madhya 19.167]. Jñānī, they want to merge. Karmī, they want to be elevated to the heavenly planet. Yogī, they wants mystic power. They want something. A pure devotee does not want anything. Therefore it is called ahaitukī. Hetu means cause. "I am serving God for this cause: I'll go back to home, back to Godhead." That is also cause. So ahaitukī. No cause. "Kṛṣṇa is my lovable Deity. I must serve." That is pure devotion.

Just like Prahlāda Mahārāja was offered all kinds of facilities. "Prahlāda, you have suffered for Me so much. Now you take whatever you like." Prahlāda Mahārāja replied, "My dear Lord, it is not a good proposal. Because I am born of a father, passionate father. Generally, I am passionate, and You are so exalted, You can give me anything.

So I shall be inclined to ask You again. Just like my father had so many opulences. So kindly do not induce me in that way. I am not a merchant, that because I have rendered some service unto You, I expect some return. No. Sa vai vaṇik. It is not business with You. I am your eternal servant." Oh, just see. This is pure devotee.

Ahaitukī. No reason. "It is my duty." That is occupational duty. "It is my eternal occupation to serve You." These are the highest ideas of pure devotion. Ahaituky apratihatā. Then "You are poor man. How you can serve Me?" No. "You are illiterate. You have no education. How can you can serve Me?

You cannot understand Vedānta philosophy. How you can know Me? How you can serve Me? You are poor man. You are poor man, you are woman, or you are śūdra." No. Apratihatā. Whatever you may be, either you are poor man or rich man or black man or white man or woman or man, it doesn't matter. Everyone has right to serve Kṛṣṇa. Apratihatā.

There is nothing in the material world which can check one's devotional service. It is so pure and exalted. Ahaituky apratihatā. And if you be situated in such kind of devotional service, yayātmā suprasīdati—immediately you become happy.

That is the standard of happiness. We are seeking, "I may be happy in this way, I may be happy in that way." No. You can simply become happy when you are a pure devotee of the Lord, without any reason. Pure devotee. Ahaituky apratihatā yayātmā suprasīdati.

Read the purport.

Pradyumna: "In this statement, Śrī Sūta Gosvāmī answers the first question of the sages of Naimiṣāraṇya. The sages asked him to summarize the whole range of revealed scriptures and present the most essential part so that fallen people, or the people in general, might easily take it up. The Vedas prescribe two different types of occupation for the human being. One is called the pravṛtti-mārga, or the path of sense enjoyment, and the other is called the nivṛtti-mārga."

Prabhupāda: Yes. Because we have come here, every one of us come in this material world for sense gratification. That is the cause.

kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga vañcha kare
pāśate māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā dhare


Because in the spiritual world, the only enjoyer is Kṛṣṇa. Bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram [Bg. 5.29]. He's the only proprietor. So therefore in the spiritual world, all the living entities...

There are many more times living entities in the spiritual world than in this material world. In the material world we see so many living entities, conditioned, 8,400,[000] species, and in each species, millions and millions are... And there are millions and millions of planets and universes. All these taken together, they are conditioned soul.

Similarly, many more times... This is called one-fourth creation, and the three-fourth creation is the spiritual world. Just imagine how many living entities are there. They're all mukta. They're liberated. Because they do not think that "I am enjoyer." Kṛṣṇa is only enjoyer. Here everyone is thinking that "I am enjoyer." I am enjoyer; therefore fight. You are enjoyer, I am enjoyer. So you are enjoying most... "Oh, you have taken more food." Just like cats and dogs, they fight. Because the disease is that "I am enjoyer."

Prasāda means that whatever by the mercy of Kṛṣṇa I get, that is called prasāda. And when we fight, oh, that is not prasāda. Then immediately it becomes ordinary ḍāl wal.[?] So this is the center of devotion, that Kṛṣṇa is enjoyer. And as soon as we think that "Now why Kṛṣṇa should be enjoyer alone? I am also enjoyer," that is māyā.

So mukti and conditioned, there is no difference. Simply due to our ignorance we become conditioned. If we change the ignorance, immediately we are mukta. Immediately liberated. Just like... The same example: you're dreaming that "I am being attacked by a tiger." So the mukti means some way or other if somebody pushes you and you are awakened, no more tiger; finished.

So mukti and conditioned life... The whole world is conditioned because there is no Kṛṣṇa consciousness. And as soon as one takes to Kṛṣṇa conscious, he is mukta, immediately liberated. What is that Kṛṣṇa conscious? Now, "Kṛṣṇa is the enjoyer. I am not enjoyer. Why I am struggling so hard? Whatever prasāda will Kṛṣṇa give me, that's all." That is mukti.

So one can become liberated in one second. In one second. It doesn't take many lives or... But because we are fools and rascals, therefore it takes many, many births. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ prapadyate [Bg. 7.19]. After many, many births, when one actually becomes jñānavān, wise, intelligent, he surrenders immediately. Vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ [Bg. 7.19]. Immediately accepts Vāsudeva, Kṛṣṇa, is everything. That person is mahātmā. Sa mahātmā. But such kind of mahātmā is very rare. Sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ.

So just try to understand. Actually, there is no condition. It is a dream. By conditioned stage we are differentiating. Bheda-buddhi. Bheda-buddhi, that "Kṛṣṇa is different from me. Who is Kṛṣṇa? I am Kṛṣṇa." The bheda-buddhi. So...

What is that?

Pradyumna: "And the other is called the nivṛtti-mārga."

Prabhupāda: Ah, nivṛtti-mārga. So nivṛtti-mārga means the Vedas, they give us instruction, "All right. You have come to enjoy. Enjoy like this." The real purpose is that by such enjoyment he'll come to the point of liberation. Just like you want sex? "All right. You marry."

This is Vedic injunction. You marry. But don't have sex daily, like cats and dogs. When you require child, then you have sex. That is Vedic injunction. And when the wife is pregnant, no more. These are Vedic injunction. It's allowing to sex life, but under caution.

Similarly, those who are meat-eaters: "Oh, I cannot do without eating meat." "All right. Eat meat." Vedic injunction. "You just, on amāvasyā, on the dark night, you just take a goat and go to the goddess Kālī and kill this animal. And the mantra is...

The animal is given this mantra: 'My dear animal, you are giving your life for this man. So you get next a human life and you have the right to kill this man.' " Now any sane man, who will take this risk, "Oh, I am killing this animal again to be killed by him? Better give up this job"? [laughter] These are the Vedic injunctions. If you want to drink wine, "All right. Have canḍī-pūjā." Everything is there.

So this is pravṛtti-mārga. Those who want to eat meat, those who want to drink wine, those who want constant sex life, for them the Vedic injunction, "All right. You do it like this. You do like that. You do like that." Not deny. But ultimately says, pravṛttir eṣā bhūtānāṁ nivṛttis tu mahā-phalā. This is your inclination, but if you can give it up, it is very nice. It is very nice. That instruction is also there: "Become brahmacārī. Don't have sex life." That is also there. But if you cannot, "All right. Have sex life in this way."

So there are pravṛtti-mārga, and nivṛtti-mārga. Both are there. "Do like this. Do not like this." This is called pravṛtti-mārga and nivṛtti-mārga. Both injunction are there. So if we follow actually the Vedic injunction, Vedic regulation, then our life ultimately becomes successful. And if we become animals, without following the Vedic instruction, that is a different thing.


Pradyumna: "The path of enjoyment is inferior, but the path of sacrifice for the supreme cause is superior."

Prabhupāda: Yes. This is called inferior and superior. Pravṛtti-mārga is inferior. Therefore if you don't accept pravṛtti-mārga under regulative principle... Just like a diseased person, typhoid, suffering from typhoid. Typhoid means intestinal disease. He cannot digest anything. So just to satisfy him the doctor says, "

All right, give him little glucose water." What is the glucose water? The water only. But the patient will think that "I am eating." He does not know, if he eats, he will die. If he eats, he will die. But the doctor, just to bluff him, "All right. You take this glucose water." You see? But he must know that "I am eating something." And he cannot digest more than glucose.

Similarly, in our diseased condition, we actually we cannot enjoy life. The sex impulse is there in the Vaikuṇṭha also. But they are so elevated that... After all, it is enjoyment. If you get better enjoyment, you give up. Paraṁ dṛṣṭvā nivartate [Bg. 2.59]. That is the nature. You are enjoying something, but if you get better enjoyment, you give up this inferior enjoyment.

So don't think in the Vaikuṇṭha or in Goloka Vṛndāvana there is no sex impulse. There is—in Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. But not like this abominable way. The impulse is there in a perfect order. So they're enjoying. Not like this abominable sex life.

The devotees there, they are so much absorbed in Kṛṣṇa thought, they don't like to have sex. There are beautiful women, beautiful men, very, very. But they have got other engagement, very nice engagement. Paraṁ dṛṣṭvā nivartate. Just like, for example, in this our society also, you see thousands of men are standing, paying to see some dead body. Sense enjoyment. You see?

But our men are not so rascal that they will stand for five hours to see some dead body. You see? Similarly, why? Why they are able not to go there, stand? Because they have seen something better. So the more you see better thing, you give up this abominable. That is progress of spiritual life. Thank you.

Devotees: All glories to Śrīla Prabhupāda. [devotees offer obeisances]

Prabhupāda: Hmm. Chant. [end]